Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites
by Donny L. Hamilton

Conservation Bibliogrpahy

CONSERVATION JOURNALS AND ORGANIZATIONS ;

AIC

Journal of the American Institute for Conservation

CCI

Canadian Conservation Institute Publications and Notes

GCI

Getty Conservation Institute

ICOM

International Council of Museum Papers

IIC

International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works

TC

Technology and Conservation (published erratically, now defunct.


Ambrose, W. R. 1970. Freeze-Drying of Swamp-Degraded Wood. Conservation of Stone and Wooden Objects 2:53-57. IIC, London. 

_____. 1975. Stabilizing Degraded Swamp Wood. ICOM Committee for Conservation,4thTriennial Meeting, Venice. ICOM, Paris.

Argo, James.1981. On the Nature of Ferrous Corrosion Products on Marine Iron. Studies in Conservation 26:42-44.

Ashley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. 1983. Adhesives and Coatings. Vol. 3.Science for Conservators, Crafts Council Conservation Teaching Series, Crafts Council, London.

Barkman, Lars. 1975. The Preservation of the Warship Wasa. In Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood, edited by W.A. Oddy, pp. 65-105. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 16. National Maritime Museum, Sweden.

_____. 1975. Corrosion and Conservation of Iron. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 169-171. IIC, London.

_____. 1978. Conservation of Rusty Iron Objects by Hydrogen Reduction. In Corrosion and Metal Artifacts, edited by B. Floyd Brown, pp. 156-166. Special Publication No. 479. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.

Barkman, Lars, and Anders Franzen. 1972. The Wasa: Preservation and Conservation. In Underwater Archaeology: A Nascent Discipline. Museum and Monuments 13:231-241. UNESCO, Paris.


Bass, George F. 1961. The Cape Gelidonya Wreck: A Preliminary Report. American Journal of Archaeology 65: 267-276.


Bryce, T. 1979. Alkaline Sulphite Treatment of Iron at the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland. Proceedings of the Symposium The Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 20-23. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.


Caley, Earle R. 1955. Coatings and Incrustations on Lead Objects from the Agora and the Method used for Their Removal. Studies in Conservation 2(2):49-54.


Carlin, Worth. 1975. Personal communication. Electrochemist at PPG Industries, Corpus Christi, Texas.


CETBGE (ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference). 1984. Waterlogged Wood: Study and Conservation. Proceedings of the 2nd ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, Grenoble, France. Center d'Etude et de Traitement des Bois Gorges d'Eau, Grenoble.


Charalambous, D. and W.A. Oddy. 1975. The 'Consolidative' Reduction of Silver. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 219-228. IIC, London.


Coremans, P. 1969. The Training of Restorers. In Problems of Conservation in Museums, pp. 7-32. Editions Eyrolles, Paris.


Cornet, J. 1970. Corrosion in Archaeology. In Scientific Methods in Medieval Archaeology, edited by R. Berger, pp. 437-454. University of California Press, Berkeley.


Cronyn, J. M. 1990. The Elements of Archaeological Conservation. Routledge, London.


de Borhegyi, S. F. 1964. The Challenge, Nature and Limitations of Underwater Archaeology. In Diving into the Past: Theories, Techniques and Applications of Underwater Archaeology, edited by J. D. Holmquist and A. H. Wheeler. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.


Dowman, E. A. 1970. Conservation in Field Archaeology. Methuen, London.


Eriksen, E., and S. Thegel. 1966. The Conservation of Iron Recovered from Sea Water. Tojhusmuseets Skrifter 8. Copenhagen.


Evans, U. R. 1963. An Introduction to Metallic Corrosion. St. Martin's Press, New York.


Farrer, T. W., L. Biek, and F. Wormwell. 1953. The Role of Tannates and Phosphates in the Preservation of Ancient Iron Objects. Journal of Applied Chemistry 80-84.


Feller, R. L., and M. Wilt. 1990. Evaluation of Cellulose Ethers for Conservation. Research in Conservation, Technical Report Series No. 3. Getty Conservation Institute.


Foley, V. P. 1967. Suggested Design and Construction for Small Laboratory Electrolysis Apparatus. In The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers, 1965-1966, edited by S. South. Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia.


Frazier, F. 1974. Production of Artifact Casts Using Epoxy Resin. The American Archeologist 1:33-42.


Furman, N. H., ed. 1962. Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis. Vol. 1, Sixth Edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York.:


Gettens, R. J. 1963. Mineral Alteration Products on Ancient Metal Objects. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 89-92. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1964. The Corrosion Products of Metal Antiquities. Smithsonian Institution Publication 4588. Washington DC.


Goggin, J. M. 1964. Underwater Archeology: Its Nature and Limitations. In Indian and Spanish Selected Writings, pp. 299-309. University of Miami Press, Florida.


Grattan, D. W., ed. 1982a. Proceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, Committee for Conservation, ICOM, Ottowa.


Grattan, D. W. 1982b. A Practical Comparative Study of Several Treatments for Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 27:124-136.


Green, V. 1975. The Use of Benzotriazole in Conservation. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp.1-15. IIC, London.


Hamilton, D. L. 1973. Electrolytic Cleaning of Metal Articles Recovered from the Sea. In Science Diving International, edited by N.C. Flemming, pp. 96-104. Proceedings of the 3rd Scientific Symposium of CMAS, 8-9th October 1973. British Sub Aqua Club, London.


_____.1976. Conservation of Metal Objects from Underwater Sites: A Study in Methods. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication No. 1, Austin.


Hodges, H. W. M. 1968. Basic Equipment and Processes. The Conservation of Cultural Property. Museum and Monuments 11:80-90. UNESCO, Paris.


Horie, C. V., and J. A. Vint. 1982. Chalconatronite: A By-Product of Conservation? Studies in Conservation 27:185-186.


Hunsberger, J. F. 1974. Electrochemical Series. In Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th edition, edited by R. C. Weast, pp. D120-125. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio.


Jedrzejewska, H. 1963. Some New Experiments in the Conservation of Ancient Bronzes. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 135-139. Butterworths, London.


Katzev, M. L., and F. Van Doorninck. 1966. Replicas of Iron Tools from a Byzantine Shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 11(3):133-142.


Keel, B. C. 1963. The Conservation and Preservation of Archaeological and Ethnological Specimens. Southern Indian Studies 15. The Archaeological Society of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.


Knowles, E., and T. White. 1958. The Protection of Metals with Tannins. Journal of Oil and Colour 41:10-23.


Kranz, M. 1969. Inhibitors and Stimulants of Corrosion. In Conservation of Metal Antiquities. Translated by J. Dlutek, pp. 17-30. The Scientific Publications Foreign Cooperation Center of the Central Institute for Scientific, Technical, and Economical Information, Warsaw, Poland.


Kunin, R. 1958. Ion Exchange Resins. John Wiley and Sons, New York.


Jensen, V. 1983. Water-Degraded Organic Materials: Skeletons in our Closets. Museum 137.



_____. 1987, Conservation of Wet Organic Artifacts Excluding Wood. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological
Objects
, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 122-163. Butterworths, London.


Lane, H. 1975. The Reduction of Lead. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 215-218. IIC, London.


_____. 1979. Some Comparisons of Lead Conservation Methods, Including Consolidative Reduction. The Proceedings of the Symposium The Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979,pp. 50-66. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.


Lawson, E. 1978. In Between: The Care of Artifacts from the Seabed to the Conservation Laboratory and Some Reasons Why it is Necessary. In Beneath the Waters of Time: The Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by J. B. Arnold III. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication No. 6. Austin.


Leigh, D. 1973. Reasons for Preservation and Methods of Conservation. In Marine Archaeology, edited by D. J. Blackman, pp. 203-218. Butterworths, London.


Locke, C. E. n.d. Comparisons of Various Electrolytes in the Treatment of Iron Artifacts. Unpublished manuscript on file at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.


Logan, J. 1989. Tannic Acid Treatment. CCI Notes 9.5. Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottowa.


MacLeod, I. D. 1987. Conservation of Corroded Copper Alloys: A Comparison of New and Traditional Methods for Removing Chloride Ions. Studies in Conservation 32:25-40.


MacLeod, I. D., and N.A. North. 1979. Conservation of Corroded Silver. Studies in Conservation 24:165-170.


Madsen, H. B. 1967. A Preliminary Note on the Use of Benzotriazole for Stabilizing Bronze Objects. Studies in Conservation 12:163-167.


Marx, R. F. 1971. Shipwrecks of the Western Hemisphere, 1492-1825. The World Publishing Company, New York.


McCawley, J. C., D. W. Grattan, and C. Cook. 1982. Some Experiments in Freeze Drying: Design and Testing of a Non-Vacuum Freeze Dryer. In Proceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, ed. D.W. Grattan, pp. 253-262. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, Committee for Conservation, ICOM, Ottowa.


McKerrell, H. E. Roger, and A. Varsanyi. 1972. The Acetone/Rosin Method for the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 17:111-125.


Merk, L. E. 1981. The Effectiveness of Benzotriazole in the Inhibition of the Corrosive Behavior of Stripping Reagents on Bronzes. Studies in Conservation 26:73-76.


Montlucon, J. 1986. Electricity: A New Implement Archaeology. Paper delivered at the Annual Conference on Underwater Archaeology, 1986 Meeting, Sacramento, California.


_____. 1987. Electricity as a Means of Stripping Archaeological Objects. World Scientist 82-86.



Moyer, C. 1988. The Duco Dialogues. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 21(4):8-10.


Muncher, D. A. 1988. Composite Casting of Partially Degraded Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 33:94-96.


Newton, R., and S. Davison. 1989. Conservation of Glass. Butterworths, London.


Noel Hume, I. 1969. Historical Archaeology. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.


North, N. A. 1987. Conservation of Metals. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 207-252. Butterworths, London.


North, N. A., and I. D. MacLeod. 1987. Corrosion of Metals. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 68-98. Butterworths, London.


North, N. A., and C. Pearson. 1975a. Investigation into Methods for Conserving Iron Relics Recovered from the Sea. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp.173-182. IIC, London.


_____. 1975b. Alkaline Sulphite Reduction Treatment of Marine Iron. Preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 4th Triennial Meeting, Venice, March 13, 1975. ICOM, Paris.


Oddy, W. A., and M. J. Hughes. 1970. The Stabilization of Active Bronze and Iron Antiquities by the Use of Sodium Sesquicarbonate. Studies in Conservation 15:183-189.


Olive, J., and C. Pearson. 1975. The Conservation of Ceramics from Archaeological Sources. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 63-68. IIC, London.


Organ, R. M. 1955. The Washing of Treated Bronzes. Museums Journal 55:112-119.


_____. 1956. The Reclamation of the Wholly Mineralized Silver in the Ur Lyre. In Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art, pp. 126-144. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


_____. 1963a. The Consolidation of Fragile Metallic Objects. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 128-134. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1963b. The Examination and Treatment of Bronze Antiquities. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 104-110. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1968. Design for Scientific Conservation of Antiquities. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.


_____.1973. Book Review of H. J. Plenderleith and A. E. A. Werner, The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art. Studies in Conservation 18:189-194.


Parrent, J. M. 1983. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood using Sucrose. Unpublished Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.


_____.1985. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood Using Sucrose. Studies in Conservation 30: 63-72.


Patoharju, O. 1964. Corrosion Problems in Marine Archaeology. In Current Corrosion Research in Scandinavia, edited by J. Larinkari, pp. 316-323. Kemian Keskuliitto, Helsinki.


Patscheider, J., and S. Veprek. 1986. Application of Low-Pressure Hydrogen Plasma to the Conservation of Ancient Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 31:29-37.


Patton, R. 1987. The Conservation of Artifacts from One of the World's Oldest Shipwrecks, The Ulu Burun, Ka Shipwreck, Turkey. In Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, edited by J. Black, pp. 41-49. Summers Schools Press, London.


Pearson, C., ed. 1987a. Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects. Butterworths, London.


____. 1987b. Deterioration of Ceramics, Glass and Stone. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 99-104. Butterworths, London.


_____.1987c. On-Site Storage and Conservation. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 105-116. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1987d. Conservation of Ceramics, Glass, and Stone. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 253-267. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1974. The Western Australian Museum Conservation Laboratory for Marine Archaeological Material. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 3(2):295-305.


_____. 1972a. Restoration of Cannon and Other Relics from H.M.B. Endeavour. Defence Standards Laboratories Report 508. Department of Supply, Australian Defence Scientific Service, Maribyrnong, Victoria.


_____. 1972b. The Preservation of Iron Cannon after 200 Years under the Sea. Studies in Conservation 17(3).


Pelikan, J. B. 1966. Conservation of Iron with Tannin. Studies in Conservation 11(3):109-115.


Peterson, C. 1974. The Nature of Data from Underwater Archeological Sites. In Underwater Archeology in the National Park Service, edited by D. Lenihan, pp. 62-65. National Park Service, Department of Interior, Washington DC.


Peterson, Mendel L. 1964. The Condition of Materials Found in Salt Water. In Diving Into the Past, edited by J. D. Holmquist and A. H. Wheeler, pp. 61-64. The Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.


_____.1969. History Under the Sea. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.


_____. 1972. Materials from Post-Fifteenth-Century Sites. In Underwater Archaeology: A Nascent Discipline. Museum and Monuments 13:243-256. UNESCO, Paris.


Plenderleith, H. J. 1956. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art. Oxford University Press.


Plenderleith, H. J. and R. M. Organ. 1953. The Decay and Conservation of Museum Objects of Tin. Studies in Conservation 1(2):63-72.


Plenderleith, H. J., and G. Torraca. 1968. The Conservation of Metals in the Tropics. In The Conservation of Cultural Property. Museum and Monuments 11:237-249. UNESCO, Paris


Plenderleith, H. J., and A. E. A. Werner. 1971. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art. Revised Edition. Oxford University Press.


Potter, E. C. 1956. Electrochemistry: Principles and Applications. Cleaver-Hume, London.


Pourbaix, M. 1966. Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions. Pergamon Press, New York.


Rees-Jones, S. G. 1972. Some Aspects of the Conservation of Iron Objects from the Sea. Studies in Conservation 17(1):39-43.


Rigby, J. K., and D. L. Clark. 1965. Casting and Molding. In Handbook of Paleontological Techniques, edited by B. Kummel and D. Raup, pp. 390-413. W. H. Freeman, San Fransisco.


Rohner, J. R. 1964. Techniques for Molding and Casting with Acrylics. Western Museum Quarterly 3(1):1-6.
_____. 1970. Technique of Making Plastic Casts of Artifacts from Permanent Molds. American Antiquity 35(2):223-226.


Rudniewski, P., and D. Tworek. 1963. A Review of Present Methods of Conserving Metal Antiquities. In Conservation of Metal Antiquities, translated by .J. Dlutek, pp. 197-213. The Scientific Publications Foreign Cooperation Center of the Central Institute for Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information, Warsaw, Poland.


Sease, Catherine. 1978. Benzotriazole: A Review for Conservators. Studies in Conservation 23:76-85.


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.


Smith, J. B., Jr., and J. P. Ellis. 1961. The Preservation of Underwater Archeological Specimens in Plastic. Curator 6(1):32-36.


Spaulding, A. C. 1960. The Dimensions of Archaeology. In Essays in the Science of Culture in Honor of Leslie A. White, edited by G. E. Dole and R. L. Carneiro, pp. 437-456. Thomas Y. Crowell, New York.


Tilbrook, D. R., and C. Pearson. 1976. The Conservation of Canvas and Rope Recovered from the Sea. In Pacific Northwest Wet Wood Conference Proceedings, edited by G. H. Grosso, pp. 61-66. Pacific Northwest Wet Wood Conference, Neah Bay, Washington.


Townsend, S. P. 1964. The Conservation of Artifacts from Salt Water. In Diving into the Past, edited by J. D. Holmquist and A. H. Wheeler, pp. 61-64. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.


_____. 1972. Standard Conservation Procedures. In Underwater Archaeology; A Nascent Discipline. Museum and Monuments 13:251-256. UNESCO, Paris.


Tylecote, R. F., and J. W. B. Black. 1980. The Effect of Hydrogen Reduction on the Properties of Ferrous Materials. Studies in Conservation 25: 87-96.


U.S. Department of Interior. 1991. 36 CFR Part 79: Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington DC.


UNESCO. 1968. Synthetic Material Used in the Conservation of Cltural Material. In The Conservation of Cultural Property. Museum and Monuments 11:303-331. UNESCO, Paris.


_____. 1972. Underwater Archaeology: A Nascent Discipline. Museum and Monuments 13. UNESCO, Paris.


Walker, R. 1979. The Role of Benzotriazole in the Preservation of Antiquities. The Proceedings of the Symposium for the Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 40-44. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.  


Watson, J. 1982. The Application of Freeze Drying on British Hardwoods from Archaeological Excavations. Proceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, edited by D. W. Grattan, pp. 237-242. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, Committee for Conservation, ICOM,Ottowa.


Weisser, T.D. 1987. The Use of Sodium Carbonate as a Pre-Treatment for Difficult-to-Stabilize Bronzes. In Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, edited by J. Black, pp. 105-108. Summers Schools Press, London.


Werner, A. E. A. 1968. The Conservation of Metals in the Tropics. In The Conservation of Cultural Property. Museum and Monuments 11:237-249. UNESCO, Paris.


Western, A. C. 1972. The Conservation of Excavated Iron Objects. Studies in Conservation 17(2).


Wilkes, B. 1971. Nautical Archaeology: A Handbook. David and Charles, Newton Abbot.

   


CONSERVATION BIBLIOGRAPHY

When a conservator writes a conservation manual such as this, much of the data are in his or her head and from personal applications. Common procedures that are used extensively may be so ingrained that the original reference or even any reference may be left out when the procedure is transcribed. To help alleviate any problems that this might create, in addition to the cited references above, a more intensive bibliography, separated by major materials, is included here.  

GENERAL REFERENCES  

Ashley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. 1983. Adhesives and Coatings. Vol. 3.Science for Conservators, Crafts Council Conservation Teaching Series, Crafts Council, London.


_____. 1983a. Cleaning. Vol. 3. Science for Conservators, Crafts Council Conservation Teaching Series, Crafts Council, London.


_____. 1983b. Adhesives and Coatings: Book 3. Science for Conservators, Crafts Council Conservation Teaching Series, Crafts Council, London.


Black, J. 1987. Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, edited by J. Black, pp. 105-108. Summers Schools Press, London.


Cronyn, J. M. 1990. The Elements of Archaeological Conservation. Routledge, London.


Dowman, E. A..1970. Conservation in Field Archaeology. Methuen, London.


Florian, M. E. 1987. The Underwater Environment. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 120ff. Butterworths, London.


Hamilton, D. L. 1973. Electrolytic Cleaning of Metal Articles Recovered from the Sea. In Science Diving International, edited by N. C. Flemming, pp. 96-104. Proceedings of the 3rd Scientific Symposium of C.M.A.S., 8-9th October 1973. British Sub Aqua Club, London.


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas/


_____. 1976. Conservation of Metal Objects from Underwater Sites: A Study in Methods. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication No. 1, Austin.


_____. 1978. Conservation Procedures Utilized for the 16th-Century Spanish Shipwreck Materials. In Nautical Archaeology of Padre Island, edited by J. B. Arnold and R. Weddle, pp. 417-438. Academic Press, New York.


_____. 1983. Basic Conservation Requirements of Marine Archaeology: Metals and Ceramics. Proceedings of the Alaskan Marine Archeology Workshop, by S. J. Langdon. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.


_____. 1996. Basic Methods of Conserving Underwater Archaeological Material Culture. U.S. Department of Defense, Legacy Resource Management Program, Washington, DC.


International Institute for Conservation (IIC). 1975. Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts. Reprints of the Contributions to the Stockholm IIC Congress, 2-6 June, 1975. IIC, London.


Jenssen, V., and C. Pearson. 1987. Environmental Considerations for Storage and Display of Marine Finds. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 268-270. Butterworths, London.


Leskard, M. 1987. The Packing and Transportation of Marine Archaeological Objects. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 117-121. Butterworths, London.


Mickey, C. D. 1980. Artifacts and the Electromotive Series. Journal of Chemical Education 57(4):275-280.


Montlucon, J. 1986. Electricity: A New Implement Archaeology. Paper delivered at the Annual Conference on Underwater Archaeology, 1986 Meeting, Sacramento, California.


Moyer, C. 1986-1988. Archaeological Conservation Forum. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter.


_____. 1986a. This is Not a Fixit Shop. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 19(2):33-36.


_____. 1986b. Storage of Artifacts. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 19(2):33-36.


_____. 1986c. The Curse of Iron. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 19(2): 12-14.


_____. 1987a. Can the Curse be Lifted? The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 20(1):17-20.


_____. 1987b. Iron Corrosion (continued). The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 20(2):28-30.


_____. 1987c. Electrolytic Reduction, Iron. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 20(4):14-16.


_____. 1988a. Training in Conservation. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 21(2):18-20.


_____. 1988b. The Duco Dialogues. The Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 21(4):8-10.


_____. 1987. Electricity as a Means of Stripping Archaeological Objects. The World Scientist 82-86.


Organ, R. M. 1963. Consolidation of Fragile Metallic Objects. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 128-133. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1968. Design for Scientific Conservation of Antiquities. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC.


_____. 1977 , The Current Status of the Treatment of Corroded Metal Artifacts. In Corrosion and Metal Artifacts, edited by B. F. Brown, pp. 107-142. U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.


Pearson, Colin. 1987a. Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1987b. On-Site Storage and Conservation. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 105-116. Butterworths, London.


Plenderleith, H. J., and A. E. A. Werner. 1977. The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art. Oxford University Press.

Pourbaix, M. 1966. Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibrium. Pergamon Press, Brussels.


Robinson, W. S. 1982. The Conservation and Preservation of Ancient Metals from Marine Sites. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 11(3):221-231.


Sease, C. 1987. A Conservation Manual for the Field Archaeologist. In Archaeological Research Tools. Vol. 4. IInstitute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.


SSCR. 1979. The Proceedings of the Symposium the Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 20-23. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.


Thomson, G., ed. 1963. Recent Advances in Conservation. Butterworths, London.


UNESCO. 1968. Synthetic Material Used in the Conservation of Cultural Material. In The Conservation of Cultural Property. Museum and Monuments 11. UNESCO, Paris.


Weir, L. E. 1974. The Deterioration of Inorganic Materials from the Sea. Institute of Archaeology, London

ADHESIVES, CONSOLIDANTS, AND COATINGS  


Ashley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. 1983. Adhesives and Coatings. Vol. 3.Science for Conservators, Crafts Council Conservation Teaching Series, Crafts Council, London.


Feller, R. L., and M. Wilt. 1990. Evaluation of Cellulose Ethers for Conservation. Research in Conservation Technical Report Series No. 3. Getty Conservation Institute.


Hughes, Elaine. 1984. The Blackwater Draw Locality #1 Collection of the Museum, Texas Tech University: A Case Study in Conservation, Collection Management, and Data Reconstruction. Master's thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.


Koob, S. P. 1986. The Use of Paraloid B-72 as an Adhesive: Its Application for Archaeological Ceramics and Other Materials. Studies in Conservation 31:7-14.


Macbeth, J. A., and A. C. Strohlein. 1965. The Use of Adhesives in Museums. Museum News 7:47-52.


Mavrov, G. 1983. Aging of Silicone Resins. Studies in Conservation 28:171-178.


Nakhkla, S. M 1986. A Comparative Study of Resins for the Consolidation of Wooden Objects. Studies in Conservation 31(2):38-44.


Rixon, A. E. 1976. Fossil Animal Remains. Athlone Press, London.


Rosenquists. A. M. 1963. New Methods for the Consolidation of Fragile Objects. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thomson, pp. 140-144. Butterworths, London.


Sease, C. 1981. The Case Against using Soluble Nylon in Conservation Work. Studies in Conservation 26:102-110.


UNESCO. 1968. Synthetic Material Used in the Conservation of cultural Material. InThe Conservation of Cultural Property, pp. 303-331. Museum and Monuments 11. UNESCO, Paris.

WOOD CONSERVATION  


Ambrose, W. R. 1970. Freeze-Drying of Swamp-Degraded Wood. Conservation of Stone and Wooden Objects 2:53-57. IIC, London. 


_____. 1975. Stabilizing Degraded Swamp Wood. ICOM Committee for Conservation,4thTriennial Meeting, Venice. ICOM, Paris.


Barkman, Lars, and Anders Franzen. 1972. The Wasa: Preservation and Conservation. In Underwater Archaeology: A Nascent Discipline. Museum and Monuments 13:231-241. UNESCO, Paris.


Biek, L., 1975, Some Notes on the Freeze Drying of Large Timbers. In Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood,edited by W. A. Oddy, pp. 25-29. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 16. National Maritime Museum, Stockholm


Bromemelle, N. S., and A. E. A. Werner. 1969. Deterioration and Treatment of Wood. In Problems of Conservation in Museums. George Allen and Unwin, London.


Brorson, C. 1970. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood in the National Museum of Denmark. Studies in Museum Technology 1. The National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.


Bryce, T., H. McKerrell, and A. Varsanyi. 1975. The Acetone-Rosin Method for the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood and Some Thoughts on the Penetration of PEG into Oak. In Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood, edited by W. A. Oddy, pp. 35-43. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 16. National Maritime Museum, Stockholm.


Buhion, C. 1991. Characterization and Conservation of waterlogged archaeological wood. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.


Clark, R. W. and J. P. Squirrell. 1985. The Pilodyn-an instrument for assessing the condition of waterlogged wooden objects. Studies in Conservation 30:177-183.


CETBGE (ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference). 1984. Waterlogged Wood: Study and Conservation. Proceedings of the 2nd ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, Grenoble, France. Grenoble: Center d'Etude et de Traitement des Bois Gorges d'Eau.

de Witte, E., A. Terfve, and J. Vynckier. 1984. The Consolidation of the Waterlogged Wood from the Gallo-Roman Boats of Pommeroeul. Studies in Conservation 29:77-83.


Grattan, D. W., ed. 1982a. Proceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, Committee for Conservation, ICOM, Ottowa.


Grattan, D. W. 1982b. A Practical Comparative Study of Several Treatments for Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 27:124-136.


_____. 1987. Waterlogged Wood. In:Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 55-67. Butterworths, London.


Grattan, D. W., and R. L. Barclay. 1988. A Study of Gap-Fillers for Wooden Objects. Studies in Conservation 33: 71-86.


Grattan D. W., and R. W. Clark. 1987. Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 164-206. Butterworths, London.


Grattan, D. W., and J. C. McCawley. 1978. The Potential of the Canadian Winter Climate for the Freeze Drying of Degraded Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 23:157-167.


Grosso, G. H., ed. 1976. Pacific Northwest Wet Wood Conference Proceedings. Neah Bay, Washington.


Hillman, D.,and M. E. Florian. 1985. A Simple Conservation Treatment for Wet Archaeological Wood. Studies in Conservation 30:39-44.


Hochman, H. 1973. Degradation and Protection of Wood from Marine Organisms Deterioration and its Preventive Treatments. Syracuse University Press, New York.


Hoffmann, P. 1983. A Rapid Method for the Detection of Polyethylene Glycols (PEG) in Wood. Studies in Conservation 28:189-193.


_____. 1986. On the Stabilization of Waterlogged Oakwood with PEG. II: Designing a Two-Step Treatment for Multi-Quality Timbers. Studies in Conservation 31:103-113.


McCawley, J. C. 1977. Waterlogged Artifacts: The Challenge to Conservation. Journal of the Canadian Conservation Institute 2:17-26.


McCawley, J. C., D. W. Grattan, and C. Cook. 1982. Some Experiments in Freeze Drying: Design and Testing of a Non-Vacuum Freeze Drying. In Proceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, edited by D. W. Grattan, pp. 253-262. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Ottowa.


McKerrell, H., E. Roger, and A. Varsanyi. 1972. The Acetone/Rosin Method for the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 17:111-125.


Muller-Beck, H.,and A. Haas. 1960. A Method for Wood Preservation Using Arigal C. Studies in Conservation 5:150-157.


Murdock, L. D. 1978. A Stainless Steel Polyethylene Glycol Treatment Tank for the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. Studies in Conservation 23:69-76.


Muthlethaler, B.1973. Conservation of Waterlogged Wood and Wet Leather. Editions Eyrolles, Travaux et Publications 9, Paris, France. 


Nakhla, S. M. 1986. A Comparative Study of Resins for the Consolidation of Wooden Objects. Studies in Conservation 31:38:44.


Oddy, W. A., ed. 1975. Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. Maritime Monographs and Reports 16. National Maritime Museum, Stockholm.


Padfield, T. 1969. The Deterioration of Cellulose. In Problems of Conservation in Museums. George Allen and Unwin, London.


Parrent, J. M.1983. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood Using Sucrose. Unpublished Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.


_____. 1985. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood Using Sucrose. Studies in Conservation 30:63-72.


Rosenquist, A. M.1959a. Stabilizing of Wood Found in the Viking Ship of Oseburg, Part I. Studies in Conservation 4:13-21.


_____. 1959b. Stabilizing of Wood Found in the Viking Ship of Oseburg, Part II. Studies in Conservation 4:62-72.


_____. 1975. Experiments on the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood and Leather by Freeze-Drying. In Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood, edited by W. A. Oddy, pp. 9-23. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 16. National Maritime Museum, Stockholm.


Simunkova, E., Z. Smejkalova, and J. Zilinger. 1983. Consolidation of Wood by the Method of Monomer Polymerization in the Object. Studies in Conservation 28:133-144.


Squirrell, J. P., R. W. Newton, and J. H. Sharp. 1987. An Investigation into the Condition and conservation of the Hull of the Mary Rose. Part I: Assessment of the Hull Timbers. Studies in Conservation 32:153-167.


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.


Tomashevich, G. N. 1969. The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood. Problems of Conservation in Museums. George Allen and Unwin, London.


Vries-Zuiderbaan, L. H., ed. 1979. Conservation of Waterlogged Wood: International Symposium on the Conservation of Large Objects of Waterlogged Wood. Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO, The Hague.


Watson, J.1982. The Application of Freeze-Drying on British Hardwoods from Archaeological Excavations. InProceedings of the ICOM Waterlogged Wood Working Group Conference, edited by D. W. Grattan, pp. 237-242. Waterlogged Wood Working Group, Committee for Conservation, ICOM, Ottowa. 

ORGANIC CONSERVATION (materials other than wood)  


Carbone, V. A., and B. C. Keel. 1985. Preservation of Plant and Animal Remains. In The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Academic Press, Orlando.


Florian, M-L. 1987. Deterioration of Organic Materials Other than Wood. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 21-54. Butterworths, London.


Jenssen, V. 1983a. Water-Degraded Organic Materials: Skeletons in our Closets. Museum 137.


_____. 1983b. Conservation of Organic Marine Archaeological Materials. In Proceedings of the Alaskan Marine Archeology Workshop. Alaska: Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.


Rosenquist, A. M. 1975. Experiments on the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood and Leather by Freeze Drying. In Problems in the Conservation of Waterlogged Wood, edited by W. A. Oddy, pp. 9-23. Maritime Monographs and Reports No. 16. National Maritime Museum, Stockholm. 


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.

TEXTILE CONSERVATION  


Annis, and Reagan. 1979. Evaluation of Selected Bleaching Treatments Suitable for Historic White Cotton. Studies in Conservation 24:171-178.


Bengtsson, S. 1975. Preservation of the Wasa Sails. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Appled Arts, pp. 33-35. IIC, London.


Erling, J. A. 1977. The Treatment of Waterlogged Textiles from the Excavation of the Machault. Paper presented to the annual SHA/CUA Conference, Ottawa, Canada.


Landi, S., and R. M. Hall. 1979. The Discovery and Conservation of an Ancient Egyptian Linen Tunic. Studies in Conservation 24:141-152.


Marko, K., and M. Dobbie. 1982. The Conservation of an Eighth-Century A.D. Sleeveless Coptic Tunic. Studies in Conservation 27:154-160.


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.


Tilbrook, D. R., and C. Pearson. 1976. The Conservation of Canvas and Rope Recovered from the Sea. In Pacific Northwest Wet Wood Conference Proceedings, edited by G. H. Grosso, pp. 61-66. Pacific Northwest Wet Wood Conference, Neah Bay, Washington.

LEATHER CONSERVATION  


Guldbeck, P. E. 1969. Leather: Its Understanding and Care. History News 24.4.


Jenssen, V. 1987. Conservation of Wet organic Artifacts Excluding Wood. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 122-163. Butterworths, London.


Morris, K., and B. L. Seifert. 1973. Conservation of Leather and Textiles from the Defense. American Institute of Conservation 18(1):33-43.


Muthlethaler, B. 1973. Conservation of Waterlogged Wood and Wet Leather. Editions Eyrolles, Travaux et Publications 9, Paris, France.


Schaffer, E. 1974. Properties and Preservation of Ethnographical Semi-Tanned Leather. Studies in Conservation 19:66-75.


Smith, C. Wayne. 2003. Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers. Texas A&M University Anthropology Series, Number Six, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.


van Dienst, E. 1985. Some Remarks on the Conservation of Wet Archaeological Leather. Studies in Conservation 30:86-92.


van Soest, H. B., T. Stambolov, and P. B. Hallebeek. 1984. Conservation of Leather. Studies in Conservation 29:21-31.


Waterer, J. W. 1972. A Guide to the Conservation and Restoration of Objects Made Wholly or in Part of Leather. Drake Publishers, New York.

CONSERVATION OF BONE AND IVORY  


Lafontaine, R. H., and P. A. Wood. 1982. The Stabilization of Ivory Against Relative Humidity Fluctuations. Studies in Conservation 27:109-117.


Matienzo, L. J., and C. E. Snow. 1986. The Chemical Effects of Hydrochloric Acid and Organic Solvents on the Surface of Ivory. Studies in Conservation 31:133-139.


Stone, T., D. N. Dickel, and G. H. Doran. n.d. The Conservation of Waterlogged Bone from the Windover Site: A Comparison of Methods. Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University.

CERAMIC CONSERVATION  


Denio, A. A. 1980. Chemistry for Potters. Journal of Chemical Education 57(4):272-275.


Hodges, H. W. M. 1975. Problems and Ethics of the Restoration of Pottery. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 37-54. IIC, London.


Mibach, E. T. G. 1975. The Restoration of Coarse Archaeological Ceramics. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 55-65. IIC, London.


Olive, J., and C. Pearson. 1975. The Conservation of Ceramics from Archaeological Sources. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 63-68. IIC, London.


Pearson, C. 1987. Conservation of Ceramics, Glass and Stone. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 253-267. Butterworths, London. 

GLASS CONSERVATION  


Brill, R. H. 1962. A Note of the Scientist's Definition of Glass. Journal of Glass Studies 4:127-138.


Gerassimova, N. G. 1975. Cleaning and Conservation of Ancient Glass in the State Hermitage Museum. Paper delivered to the annual IIC Congress, Stockholm, Sweden.


Moncrieff, A. 1975. Problems and Potentialities in the Conservation of Vitreous Materials. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts. IIC, London.


Newton, R., and S. Davison. 1989. Conservation of Glass. Butterworths, London.


Pearson, C. 1987. Deterioration of Ceramics, Glass, and Stone. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 99-104. Butterworths, London. 

STONE CONSERVATION  


Kotlik, P., P. Justa, and J. Zelinger. 1983. The Application of Epoxy Resins for the Consolidation of Porous Stone. Studies in Conservation 28:75-79.

METAL CONSERVATION- GENERAL  


Brown, B. F., ed. 1977. Corrosion and Metal Artifacts. National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce,
Washington, DC.


Gettens, R. 1964. The Corrosion Products of Metal Antiquities. Smithsonian Institute Publication 4588, Washington DC.


Hamilton, D. L. 1976. Conservation of Metal Objects from Underwater Sites: A Study in Methods. Texas Antiquities Committee Publication No. 1, Austin.


_____. 1978. Conservation Procedures Utilized for the 16th-Century Spanish Shipwreck Materials. In Nautical Archaeology of Padre Island, edited by J. B. Arnold and R. Weddle, pp. 417-438. Academic Press, New York.


_____. 1983. Basic Conservation Requirements of Marine Archaeology: Metals and Ceramics. In Proceedings of the Alaskan Marine Archeology Workshop, edited by S. J. Langdon. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.


_____. 1996. Basic Methods of Conserving Underwater Archaeological Material Culture. U.S. Department of Defense, Legacy Resource Management Program, Washington, DC.


Organ, R. M. 1963. Consolidation of Fragile Metallic Objects. In Recent Advances in Conservation, edited by G. Thompson, pp. 128-133. Butterworths, London.


_____. 1977. The Current Status of the Treatment of Corroded Metal Artifacts. In Corrosion and Metal Artifacts, edited by B. F. Brown, pp.107-142. National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.


Patton, R. 1987. The Conservation of Artifacts from One of the World's Oldest Shipwrecks, The Ulu Burun, Ka Shipwreck, Turkey. In Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, compiled by J. Black, pp. 41-49. Summers Schools Press, London.


Plenderleith, H. J., and G. Torraca. 1968. The Conservation of Metals in the Tropics. In The Conservation of Cultural Property, pp. 237-249. Museum and Monuments 11. UNESCO, Paris.

IRON CONSERVATION  

Aldaz, A., T. Espana, V. Montiel, and M. Lopez-Segura. 1986. A Simple Tool for the Electrolytic Restoration of Archaeological Metallic Objects with Localized Corrosion. Studies in Conservation 31(4):175-177.

Argo, J. 1981. On the Nature of Ferrous Corrosion Products on Marine Iron. Studies in Conservation 26:42-44.


Barkman, L. 1975. Corrosion and Conservation of Iron. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 169-171. IIC, London.


_____. 1978. Conservation of Rusty Iron Objects by Hydrogen Reduction. In Corrosion and Metal Artifacts, edited by B. F. Brown, pp. 156-166. National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.


Bryce, T. 1979. Alkaline Sulphite Treatment of Iron at the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland: The Conservation and Restoration of Metals. In The Proceedings of the Symposium on the Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 20-23. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.


Carlin, Worth, Donald Keith, and Juan Rodriquez, 2001, Less is More: Measure of Chloride Removal Rate from Iron artifacts during Electrolysis. Studies in Conservation, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 68-76.


Carlin, Worth, and Donald Keith, 1996, An Improved tannin-based corrosion inhibitor-coating system for ferrous artrefacts. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 25.1:38-45.


Clarke, R. W., and S. M. Blackshaw, eds. 1982. Conservation of Iron. Maritime Monographs and Reports, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.


Eriksen, E., and S. Thegel. 1966. Conservation of Iron Recovered From the Sea. Tojhusmuseets Skrifter 8.


Farrer, T. W., L. Blek, and F. Wormwell. 1953. The Role of Tannates and Phosphates in the Preservation of Ancient Iron Objects. Journal of Applied Chemistry 80-84.


Fenn, J. D., and K. Foley. 1975. Passivation of Iron. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 195-198. IIC, London.


Gilberg, M. R., and N. J. Seeley. 1981. The Identity of Compounds Containing chloride Ions in Marine Iron Corrosion Products: A Critical Review. Studies in Conservation 26:50-56.


_____. 1982. The Alkaline Sodium Sulphite Reduction Process for Archaeological Iron: A Closer Look. Studies in Conservation 27:180-184.


Keene, S., and C. Orton. 1985. Stability of Treated Archaeological Iron: An Assessment. Studies in Conservation 30:136-142.


Logan, J. 1989. Tannic Acid Treatment. Canadian Conservation Institute Notes 9(5).


Selwyn, L.S., W.R. McKinnon, and V. Argyropoulos, Models for chloride ion diffusion in archaeological iron. Studies in Conservation, 46:No. 2, pp. 109-120.


Muncher, D. A. 1988. Composite Casting of Partially Degraded Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 33:94-96.


North, N. A. 1976. Thermal Stability of Cast and Wrought Marine Iron. Studies in Conservation 21:75-83.


_____. 1982. Corrosion Products on Marine Iron. Studies in Conservation 27:75-83.


_____. 1987. Conservation of Metals. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 207-252. Butterworths, London.


North, N. A., and I. D. MacLeod. 1987. Corrosion of Metals. In Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, edited by C. Pearson, pp. 68-98. Butterworths, London


North, N. A., and C. Pearson. 1975a. Investigation Into Methods for Conserving Iron Relics Recovered from the Sea. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 173-182. IIC, London.


_____. 1975b. Alkaline Sulphite Reduction Treatment of Marine Iron. Preprints, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 4th Triennial Meeting, Venice. ICOM, Paris.


_____. 1978. Washing Methods for Chloride Removal from Marine Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 23:174-186.


Patscheider, J., and S. Veprek. 1986. Application of Low-Pressure Hydrogen Pplasma to the Conservation of Ancient Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 31:29-37.


Pearson, C. 1972a. Restoration of Cannon and Other Relics From H.M.B. Endeavor. Australian Defense Scientific Service Report 508, Department of Supply, Australian Defence Scientific Service, Maribyrnong, Victoria.


_____. 1972b. The Preservation of Iron Cannons after 200 Years Under the Sea. Studies in Conservation 17:71-110.


Pelikan, J. B. 1968. Conservation of Iron with Tannin. Studies in Conservation 12:109-115.


Scott, D. A., and N. J. Seeley. 1987. The Washing of Fragile Iron Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 32:73-76.


Socha, J., M. Leslak, S. Safarzynski, and K. Leslak. 1980. Oxide Coating in the Conservation of Metal Monuments: The Column of King Sigismumdus III Waza in Warsaw. Studies in Conservation 1:19-27.


Turgoose, S. 1982. Post-Excavation Changes in Iron Antiquities. Studies in Conservation 27:97-101.


_____. 1985. The Corrosion of Archaeological Iron During Burial and Treatment. Studies in Conservation 30:13-18.


Tylecote, R. F., and J. W. B. Black. 1980. The Effect of Hydrogen Reduction on the Properties of Ferrous Materials. Studies in Conservation 25:87-96.


Walker, R. 1982. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiquities. The Journal of Chemical Education 59(11):943-947.


Watkinson, D. 1983. Degree of Mineralization: Its Significance for the Stability and Ttreatment of Excavated Ironwork. Studies in Conservation 28:85-90.


Wihr, R. 1975. Electrolytic Desalination of Archaeological Iron. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 189-191. IIC, London.



COPPER AND COPPER ALLOY CONSERVATION  


Angelucci, S., P. Florentino, J. Kosinkova, and M. Marabelli. 1978. Pitting Corrosion in Copper and Copper Alloys: Comparative Treatment Tests. Studies in Conservation 24:147-156.


Ganorkar, M. C., V. Pandit Rao, P. Gayathri, and T. A. Sreenivasa Rao. 1988. A Novel Method for Conservation of Copper-Based Artifacts. Studies in Conservation 33(2):97-101.


Green, V. 1975. The Use of Benzotriazole in Conservation. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. -15. IIC, London.


Hjelm-Hansen, N. 1984. Cleaning and Stabilization of Sulphide-Corroded Bronzes. Studies in Conservation 29:17-20.


Horie, C. V., and J. A. Vint. 1982. Chalconatronite: A By-Product of Conservation? Studies in Conservation 27:185-186.


Keith, Donald and Worth Carlin, 1997, A bronze cannon from La Belle, 1686: its construction, conservation, and display. Studies in Conservation 26.2:144-158.


MacLeod, I. D. 1987. Conservation of Corroded Copper Alloys: A Comparison of New and Traditional Methods for Removing Chloride Ions. Studies in Conservation 32:25-40.


Merk, L. E. 1978. A Study of Reagents Used in the Stripping of Bronzes. Studies in Conservation 26:15-22.


_____. 1981. The Effectiveness of Benzotriazole in the Inhibition of the Corrosive Behavior of Stripping Reagents on Bronzes. Studies in Conservation 26:73-76.


Scott, D. A. 1980. The Conservation and Analysis of Some Ancient Copper Alloy Beads from Columbia. Studies in Conservation 25:157-164.


Sease, C. 1978. Benzotriazole: A Review for Conservators. Studies in Conservation 23:76-85.


Walker, R. 1979. The Role of Benzotriazole in the Preservation of Antiquities. In The Proceedings of the Symposium the Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 40-44. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh


_____. 1980. Corrosion and Preservation of Bronze Artifacts. Journal of Chemical Education 57(4):277-280.


Wisser, T. D. 1987. The Use of Sodium Carbonate as a Pre-Treatment for Difficult-to-Stabilize Bronzes. In Recent Advances in the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts, compiled by J. Black, pp. 105-108. Summers Schools Press, London.

 

SILVER CONSERVATION  

Charalambous, D., and W. A. Oddy. 1975. The 'Consolidative' Reduction of Silver. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 219-228. IIC, London.


Daniels, V. 1981. Plasma Reduction of Silver Tarnish on Daguerreotypes. Studies in Conservation 26:45-49.


MacLeod, I. D., and N. A. North. 1979. Conservation of Corroded Silver. Studies in Conservation 24:165-170.


Sramek, J., T. B. Jakobsen, and J. B. Pelikan. 1978. Corrosion and Conservation of a Silver Visceral Vessel from the Beginning of the 17th century. Studies in Conservation 23:114-117.

GOLD CONSERVATION 


Scott, D. A. 1983. The Deterioration of Gold Alloys and Some Aspects of their Conservation. Studies in Conservation 28:194-201.

LEAD AND LEAD ALLOY CONSERVATION  


Caley, E. R. 1955. Coatings and Encrustations on Lead Objects from the Agora and the Method Used for their Removal. Studies in Conservation 2:49-54.


Carlin, W. and D. Keith, 1997, On the treatment of pewter plates from the wreck of La Belle, 1686. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 26.1: 70.


Lane, H. 1975. The Reduction of Lead. In Conservation in Archaeology and the Applied Arts, pp. 215-218. IIC, London.


_____. 1979. Some Comparisons of Lead Conservation Methods, including Consolidative Reduction. In The Proceedings of the Symposium the Conservation and Restoration of Metals, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 1979, pp. 50-66. Scottish Society for Conservation and Restoration, Edinburgh.


Mattias, P., G. Maura, and G. Rinaldi. 1984. The Degradation of Lead Antiquities from Italy. Studies in Conservation 29:87-92.

ALUMINUM CONSERVATION  


MacLeod, I. D. 1983. Stabilization of Corroded Aluminum. Studies in Conservation 28:1-7.

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