Arade 1

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(this article is incomplete)

Contents

Introduction

The 1970 report described the Arade 1 shipwreck hanging from the upper part of the embankment created by the dredging works, and filled with 1 to 1.5 m of sediment. The frames were 13 x 16 cm in section, the room and space between 16 and 35 cm. The hull planking was 5 cm thick and varied between 25 and 34 cm in width. The ceiling covered both the lower part of the hull, and its sides - the sketch showing no stringers - and was terminated with a series of filler pieces that closed the room between futtocks, as shown in FPAS' pictures.

There was a large keelson - or mast step - preserved at least along 5 m. It was surmounted by a rather small keel in the sketch by Mr. Albuquerque. According to the report a large part of the ship was torn apart by the dredge and laid scattered on the seabed. It is possible that the falling sediment quickly covered this part of the ship during the following weeks, as the embankment, originally cut at a 1/6 inclination, re-arranged itself into a more stable slope.

A wood sample taken by Mr. Helder Mendes was sent to Groningen, in the Netherlands, and was dated by radiocarbon to the 13th century. As this date is not calibrated, and we do not know exactly where the wood sample was taken, it must be taken very carefully. Another sample - probably from the planking - was sent by Mr. Farrajota to Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, for species identification, and was found to be from a tree of the oak family (Quercus sp.).

The pictures taken by the FPAS team show a very interesting feature. It seems that the upper ceiling strake is a stringer, thicker than the one that lies below it. The pictures taken by the CPAS team were given to us by Mrs. Margarita Farrajota, the director of that diving club in 2002. She kindly let us see her notes and took on the work of assigning captions to each one of the 18 pictures lent to us, based upon her notes and sketches, placing them on the hull remains as they were seen at the time.

As mentioned in the Arade River Shipwrecks entry, in the summer of 2002 the excavation and recording of the Arade 1 shipwreck was entrusted to a team from the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M university.


The 2002 Field Season

The 2002 field season in Portugal comprised two months of work developed by a joint CNANS / TAMU-INA team, which ran from July the 1st to August the 31st.

A team from Texas A&M ( Filipe Castro, Dante Bartoli, Starr Cox, P. Eric Flynn, Gustavo Garcia, and Michael Jones) worked from early July to mid August on the Arade 1 site, diving twice a day, five days a week. Saturdays were used to fix the equipment and update the reporting. Sundays were taken to rest. After the Texas A&M team left, a team from CNANS closed the site and covered the shipwreck.

During the two months in Portugal, students interested were offered a number of weekend excursions, which included visiting Dr. Shelley Wachsmann's work at the castle of Castro Marin, looking for the 80-gun vessel Océan, lost near Salema beach in 1759, during the French and Indian War, or visiting locals of interest on the southern coast of Portugal, such as Sagres and Boca do Rio.

All lodging costs were assumed by the Portuguese government, through its Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Náutica e Subaquática, and by the municipality of Portimão. The team was lodged at Portimão's commercial harbor, in a camp built with modified shipping containers. The camp was located 200 m from the pier where the boats were docked, with all diving and excavation equipment kept in containers rented for that purpose. Food was delivered to the site daily by a local catering company. General cleaning and maintenance was also provided by the municipality, who contracted a company to carry out the daily cleaning of the camp. The kitchen was maintained by the students.

Underwater works were carried out five days a week. Two dives were performed each day. The INA / Texas A&M University team was given two boats for that purpose. The main objective of this field school was to expose all students to a real life underwater archaeological excavation. Students were expected to try several different excavation and recording techniques. All the students refined their skills in a low visibility environment, with a slight current, and over a real shipwreck site, dealing with fragile and decaying organic materials, and learning how to work in a group, taking a share of the less pleasant part of the work: cleaning tools, filling diving tanks, and carrying the heavy equipment.

The working schedule encompassed the following operations:

   * Removal of the sandbags and plastic cover that protected the shipwreck; 
   * Cleaning, tagging, and positioning of the datum points fixed in the 2001 season; 
   * Fixing the 10 x 10 m working area marked around the shipwreck in 2001; 
   * Excavation of the sediment deposited over the shipwreck; 
   * Cleaning the hull timbers; 
   * Excavation of four trenches in areas previously chosen around the shipwreck;
   * Identification, tagging, and positioning of all concretions and artifacts found in the area; 
   * Verification of the accuracy and completion of the existing partial drawing of the hull; 
   * Compilation of a map with the depths of the area; 
   * Drawing all concretions and loose timbers at a 1/1 scale; 
   * Raising all artifacts; 
   * Raising all loose timbers; 
   * Recording transverse profiles across the hull remains. 

As for the recording work in dry environment, the tasks assigned were:

   * Analysis of the 2001 site plan, drawn at a 1/10 scale;
   * Drawing the 10 x 10 m working area at a 1/10 scale; 
   * Drawing the hull remains at a 1/5 scale; 
   * Drawing transverse profiles of the hull remains; 
   * Drawing ship's timbers at a 1/1 scale; 
   * Transposing the 1/1 scale drawings to 1/5 and 1/10 scales. 

In 2000 and 2001 CNANS and GEO had gathered a collection of rare papers and reports pertaining to the story of the Arade River estuary and the dredging works performed during the 20th century. The consultation of these documents was essential for the understanding of the site geomorphology and history. All doubts and questions were quickly answered by the 2001 team. Particularly useful was the information supplied by the members of the local teams, Alberto Machado from GEO and José Sousa from the IPSIS Project.

The Site

The shipwreck designated A1 by CNANS/GEO team in 2001 was found near the area where the shipwreck Arade 1 was sighted for a short period in 1970, during the dredging works described in the Volume 1 - The Site - of the A&M report.1 It was partially excavated and recorded during that summer's field season.

The account of the captain of the Dutch dredge Mark suggested that in 1970 the Arade 1 vessel was exposed on the embankment created by the dredge and, while projecting beyond the embankment and full of sediment, shattered when touched by the dredge. It may have broke into two parts. The projecting part slid along the embankment and may have been immediately buried by the falling sediment, since it was not observed in 1970.

A reconstruction of the bottom of the river in this area shows a steep embankment with a slope around 1/2 in 1970, after the dredging operations (Fig.1), and a much smoother slope in 1997, when the latest cartography of this area was made (Fig.2). We must keep in mind, however, that the slope created by the dredge during its work was 1/6, much steeper than the 1/2 slope found after the Autumn of 1970, when the cartography was made.

Should the projecting half of the Arade 1 shipwreck be in a somehow cohesive form, it was certainly covered by several meters of sediment in 1970.

References

1. Castro, F., The Arade 1 Ship - 2002 Field Season - Vol. 1 - The Site - ShipLab Report 3. On file in IPA/CNANS' library, 2002, and in Nautical Archaeological Program Library, Texas A&M University, 2002. Download PDF(2.5Mb) Castro, F., The Arade 1 Ship - 2002 Field Season - Vol. 2 - The Hull - ShipLab Report 5. On file in IPA/CNANS' library, 2002, and in Nautical Archaeological Program Library, Texas A&M University, 2002. Download PDF (1.5Mb) Castro, F., The Arade 1 Ship - 2002 Field Season - Vol. 3 - The Artifacts - ShipLab Report 6. On file in IPA/CNANS' library, 2002, and in Nautical Archaeological Program Library, Texas A&M University, 2002. Download PDF (2.3Mb) Castro, Filipe, “Archaeology and Dredges: the Arade River Archaeological Complex”, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology (2005) 34.1:72-83. Download PDF (1Mb)

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