Graveney (ca. 895)
These clinker-built remains were found buried in two feet of mud in the Graveney Marshes along the Kent River in England. The nine extant frames were removed and the planking shell was encased in plaster of paris, then removed as a unit to the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. There the hull was reassembled and conserved. A fiberglass replica was made of the reassembly; it is now on display in the Museum. The luting of animal hair was well-preserved. Rivets were driven through treenails and clenched over roves, the only treenailed clinker system on record thus far. Frame dimensions and spacing varied greatly, as did the lands of the planking. Their respective tables list only their overall averages. The frames were treenailed to alternate strakes, but not to the garboard or keel. Treenails were made from willow and were wedged. 1
1. Richard Steffy, INA Shipdata Project, Texas A&M University.