India Route Shipwrecks Project

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  '''Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks'''
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!Armada!!Ship!!Captain!!Place!!Date!!Cause
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|-
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| 1497||unknown||Gonçalo Nunes||Near Aguada de S. Brás||1497, Nov 25 to Dec 6||burnt
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|-
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| 1497||São Rafael||Paulo da Gama||Baixos de São Rafael||Jan 13, 1499||burnt
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|-
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| 1500||unknown||Vasco de Ataíde||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||storm
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|-
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| 1500||unknown||Simão de Pina||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||storm
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|-
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| 1500||unknown||Bartolomeu Dias||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||storm
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|-
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| 1500||unknown||Aires Gomes da Silva||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||storm
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|-
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| 1500||unknown||Sancho de Tovar||Coast of Melinde||1501||burnt
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|-
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| 1502||São Pantaleão?||Pedro Afonso de Aguiar||Parcel de Sofala||1502||stranded after storm
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|-
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| 1503||N Sra da Conçeição||Pedro de Ataíde||shallows of São Lázaro||1504||stranded?
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|-
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| 1503||Rainha||Francisco de Albequerque||Baixos de São Lázaro?||1504||unknown
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|-
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| 1503||unknown||Pedro Vaz da Veiga||close to the Cape of Good Hope?||1503, 1504?||unknown
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|-
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| 1503||Faial or Faia||Nicolau Coelho||shallows of São Lázaro||1504||unknown
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|-
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| 1504||unknown||Pedro de Mendonça||close to Aguada de São Brás||1505||stranded
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|-
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| 1505||unknown||Lopo Sanches||close to Cabo das Correntes||june or july 1505||storm
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|-
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| 1505||Bela||Pedro Ferreira Fogaça||coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador||May 4, 1505||storm and bad shape of ship
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| 1505||Santiago||Pedro de Anhaia||Barra of Lisbon||March 25, 1505||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1505||São João||Francisco de Anhaia||Mozambique or Quiloa||1505||unknown
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|-
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| 1505||Santiago «Galega»||Pedro Barreto de Magalhães||leaving the barra of Quiloa||April 6, 1506||poor navigation?
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|-
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| 1506||Leitoa||Leonel Coutinho||Mozambique||1507||bad shape of ship
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|-
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| 1506||São Vicente||Rui Perreira Coutinho||Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal||1506||shipwrecked
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|-
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| 1506||N Sra da Luz||João Gomes de Abreu||Pate||1506||unknown
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|-
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| 1506||Santa Maria das Virtudes||Jorge Botelho||Pate||||
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|-
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| 1506||unknown||Job Queimado||Atlantic Ocean||1509?||captured and plundered by the French
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|-
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| 1507||São Romão?||Vasco Gomes de Abreu||between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||unknown
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|-
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| 1507||São João?||Pedro Lorenço||between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||unknown
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|-
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| 1507||São Romão?||Lopo Cabral||between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||unknown
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|-
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| 1507||São Simão||Rui Gonçalves de Valadares||between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||unknown
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|-
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| 1507||unknown||João Chanoca||River Senegal||1507||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1507||São Gabriel||Rui da Cunha||unknown||Jan 15, 1509||unknown
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|-
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| 1508||Santa Clara||Jerónimo Teixeira||between Malaca and India||1509-1510?||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1508||unknown||Gonçalo de Sousa||Indian Ocean ?||1508-1509?||purposely burnt, for lack of sailors
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|-
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| 1508||São João||Jorge de Aguiar||Tristão da Cunha islands||1508||unknown
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|-
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| 1509||São Vicente?||Francisco de Sá?||Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor||1510?||stranded
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|-
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| 1509||São Jorge?||Sebastião de Sousa||Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor||1510?||stranded
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|-
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| 1510||São Roque?||Manuel da Cunha||Mozambique||1510||unknown
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|-
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| 1511||S Maria da Luz?/São Pedro?||Jorge de Brito||Penedo de São Pedro||1511||unknown
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|-
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| 1512||S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes?||Francisco Nogueira||Baixos of Angoxa||1512||unknown
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|-
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| 1513||S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes?||Francisco Correia||São Lázaro island||1513||unknown
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|-
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| 1514||São Roque?||Luís Dantas||Cambaia||1514?||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1516||N Sra da Luz||Franciso de Sousa «Mancias»||Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço||August 1517?||storm
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|-
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| 1516||São Simão?||António de Lima||Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço||August 1517?||storm
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|-
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| 1519||Santo António||Manuel de Sousa||Melinde/Quiloa? or Manfia island||1519-1520?||unknown
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|-
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| 1523||São Miguel||Aires da Cunha||Mozambique||1523?||wrecked when retired for winter
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|-
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| 1524||Barbosa||Francisco de Brito||between Mozambque and India||1524||unknown
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|-
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| 1524||São Jorge||D Fernando de Monroy||low waters of Melinde||1524||unknown
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|-
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| 1524||Santa Helena||Cristovão Rosado||Mozambique||August 1524?||wrecked against the coast
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|-
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| 1524||«Garça»||«Moçem» Gaspar||close to Mozambique||1524||mutiny
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|-
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| 1524||S Maria do Monte Sinai||D Luis de Meneses||Portuguese coast||1525||
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|-
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| 1525||Corpo Santo||D Felipe de Castro||Cabo de Rosalgate||Nov 19, 1525||wrecked against the coast
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|-
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| 1525||S Vicente or Victória||Francisco de Anhaia||Leaving Lisbon||April 1525||unknown
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|-
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| 1525||S Maria de Paraíso||Diogo de Melo||close to Lisbon in the cachopos||July 4,1527||unknown
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|-
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| 1527||S António or Conceição||Manuel de Lacerda||Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço||1527||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1527||S Sebastião||Aleixo de Abreu||Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço||1527||poor navigation
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|-
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| 1527||S Ildefonso?||Pedro Aenes (french)||nknown||1527?||unknown
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|-
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| 1528||Flor da Rosa||Nuno da Cunha||Island of S Lourenço||Aug 23, 1528||wrecked against the coast and burned
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|-
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| 1528||Biscainha?||João de Freitas||Vale de Eguas, close to the Canarie islands||May 6, 1528||collision with another vessel
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|-
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| 1528||S Asanto Antonio?||Bernardim da Silveira||Parcel de Sofala||1528||unknown
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|-
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| 1528||unknown||Afonso Vaz Azambujo||Island of João de Nova||1528||unknown
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| 1529||Conceição||Henrique Moniz Barreto||Between Goa and Ormuz||end 1529?||unknown
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| 1529||S Roque||Rui Mendes de Mesquita||Ìndia||end 1529?||unknown
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|-
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| 1529||Flor de la Mar||Rui Gomes da Grã||Between India and Ormuz||end 1529?||unknown
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Revision as of 17:20, 7 December 2010


The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.

Introduction

(View of Lisbon with ships from Genealogia do Infante D. Fernando, 1530-34, London, British Library.)

With his successful trip to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama opened a maritime route to the Asian markets of spices and exotic goods. The Portuguese crown sought to keep this commerce under state control, and sent a fleet to India almost every year, for over a century.

These voyages are reasonably well documented, as well as their routes, their ports of call, the names of the ship's captains, the Asian governors, and the notable soldiers.

The India Route

We know a good deal about the economics of this trade, its impact in 16th-Century Europe, the business networks that were generated and developed in various countries, and the role of the Church in the European expansion to East.

At present we don't know much about the principal vehicle of this expansion: the Portuguese Indiaman. In fact, it is amazing how little is known about the Portuguese naus that plowed the maritime route to India from 1498 to about 1650.

A handful of interesting texts and treatises, a small number of representations in charts, drawings, and paintings, and around twenty shipwrecks are all the clues we have to interpret, in the attempt to understand and reconstruct these ships.We know almost nothing about the standard Portuguese Indiaman, its routes, evolution, and performance at sea.

We know very little about the way in which these vessels were conceived and built, and there are enormous gaps in our knowledge about their size, shape, construction details, structural strength, design of upper work, or even basic rigging solutions.

View of Lisbon with ships from the so-called Livro de Horas de D. Manuel, 1517-c.26, MNAA, Lisbon.

From an estimated total of around 220 shipwrecks, only a few Portuguese naus have been found in the 20th century, and almost all were looted by curious divers or destroyed by treasure hunters.

Very few have been excavated or even surveyed by archaeologists, and the rare scholarly publications that resulted from the archaeological recording of these shipwrecks have become precious, considering the scarcity of information available.

This page is intended as a contribution to this understanding, and a guide through the bibliography and other information available pertaining to the Portuguese naus da Índia.

The main objective of this project is to gather, organize, and make easily accessible all available information on Portuguese Indiamen.

Shipwrecks

Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks
Armada Ship Captain Place Date Cause
1497 Unknown Gonçalo Nunes Near Aguada de S. Brás Nov 25 to Dec 6, 1497 Burnt
1497 São Rafael Paulo da Gama Baixos de São Rafael Jan 13, 1499 Burnt
1500 Unknown Vasco de Ataíde South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Simão de Pina South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Bartolomeu Dias South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Aires Gomes da Silva South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Sancho de Tovar Coast of Melinde 1501 Burnt
1502 São Pantaleão? Pedro Afonso de Aguiar Parcel de Sofala 1502 Stranded after storm
1503 N Sra da Conçeição Pedro de Ataíde shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Stranded?
1503 Rainha Francisco de Albequerque Baixos de São Lázaro? 1504 Unknown
1503 Unknown Pedro Vaz da Veiga Close to the Cape of Good Hope? 1503, 1504? Unknown
1503 Faial or Faia Nicolau Coelho Shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Unknown
1504 Unknown Pedro de Mendonça Close to Aguada de São Brás 1505 Stranded
1505 Unknown Lopo Sanches Close to Cabo das Correntes June or July 1505 Storm
1505 Bela Pedro Ferreira Fogaça Coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador May 4, 1505 Storm and bad shape of ship
1505 Santiago Pedro de Anhaia Barra of Lisbon March 25, 1505 Poor navigation
1505 São João Francisco de Anhaia Mozambique or Quiloa 1505 Unknown
1505 Santiago «Galega» Pedro Barreto de Magalhães Leaving the barra of Quiloa April 6, 1506 Poor navigation?
1506 Leitoa Leonel Coutinho Mozambique 1507 Bad shape of ship
1506 São Vicente Rui Perreira Coutinho Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal 1506 Shipwrecked
Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks
Armada Ship Captain Place Date Cause
1497 unknown Gonçalo Nunes Near Aguada de S. Brás 1497, Nov 25 to Dec 6 burnt
1497 São Rafael Paulo da Gama Baixos de São Rafael Jan 13, 1499 burnt
1500 unknown Vasco de Ataíde South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Simão de Pina South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Bartolomeu Dias South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Aires Gomes da Silva South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Sancho de Tovar Coast of Melinde 1501 burnt
1502 São Pantaleão? Pedro Afonso de Aguiar Parcel de Sofala 1502 stranded after storm
1503 N Sra da Conçeição Pedro de Ataíde shallows of São Lázaro 1504 stranded?
1503 Rainha Francisco de Albequerque Baixos de São Lázaro? 1504 unknown
1503 unknown Pedro Vaz da Veiga close to the Cape of Good Hope? 1503, 1504? unknown
1503 Faial or Faia Nicolau Coelho shallows of São Lázaro 1504 unknown
1504 unknown Pedro de Mendonça close to Aguada de São Brás 1505 stranded
1505 unknown Lopo Sanches close to Cabo das Correntes june or july 1505 storm
1505 Bela Pedro Ferreira Fogaça coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador May 4, 1505 storm and bad shape of ship
1505 Santiago Pedro de Anhaia Barra of Lisbon March 25, 1505 poor navigation
1505 São João Francisco de Anhaia Mozambique or Quiloa 1505 unknown
1505 Santiago «Galega» Pedro Barreto de Magalhães leaving the barra of Quiloa April 6, 1506 poor navigation?
1506 Leitoa Leonel Coutinho Mozambique 1507 bad shape of ship
1506 São Vicente Rui Perreira Coutinho Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal 1506 shipwrecked
1506 N Sra da Luz João Gomes de Abreu Pate 1506 unknown
1506 Santa Maria das Virtudes Jorge Botelho Pate
1506 unknown Job Queimado Atlantic Ocean 1509? captured and plundered by the French
1507 São Romão? Vasco Gomes de Abreu between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São João? Pedro Lorenço between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São Romão? Lopo Cabral between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São Simão Rui Gonçalves de Valadares between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 unknown João Chanoca River Senegal 1507 poor navigation
1507 São Gabriel Rui da Cunha unknown Jan 15, 1509 unknown
1508 Santa Clara Jerónimo Teixeira between Malaca and India 1509-1510? poor navigation
1508 unknown Gonçalo de Sousa Indian Ocean ? 1508-1509? purposely burnt, for lack of sailors
1508 São João Jorge de Aguiar Tristão da Cunha islands 1508 unknown
1509 São Vicente? Francisco de Sá? Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? stranded
1509 São Jorge? Sebastião de Sousa Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? stranded
1510 São Roque? Manuel da Cunha Mozambique 1510 unknown
1511 S Maria da Luz?/São Pedro? Jorge de Brito Penedo de São Pedro 1511 unknown
1512 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Nogueira Baixos of Angoxa 1512 unknown
1513 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Correia São Lázaro island 1513 unknown
1514 São Roque? Luís Dantas Cambaia 1514? poor navigation
1516 N Sra da Luz Franciso de Sousa «Mancias» Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? storm
1516 São Simão? António de Lima Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? storm
1519 Santo António Manuel de Sousa Melinde/Quiloa? or Manfia island 1519-1520? unknown
1523 São Miguel Aires da Cunha Mozambique 1523? wrecked when retired for winter
1524 Barbosa Francisco de Brito between Mozambque and India 1524 unknown
1524 São Jorge D Fernando de Monroy low waters of Melinde 1524 unknown
1524 Santa Helena Cristovão Rosado Mozambique August 1524? wrecked against the coast
1524 «Garça» «Moçem» Gaspar close to Mozambique 1524 mutiny
1524 S Maria do Monte Sinai D Luis de Meneses Portuguese coast 1525
1525 Corpo Santo D Felipe de Castro Cabo de Rosalgate Nov 19, 1525 wrecked against the coast
1525 S Vicente or Victória Francisco de Anhaia Leaving Lisbon April 1525 unknown
1525 S Maria de Paraíso Diogo de Melo close to Lisbon in the cachopos July 4,1527 unknown
1527 S António or Conceição Manuel de Lacerda Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 poor navigation
1527 S Sebastião Aleixo de Abreu Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 poor navigation
1527 S Ildefonso? Pedro Aenes (french) nknown 1527? unknown
1528 Flor da Rosa Nuno da Cunha Island of S Lourenço Aug 23, 1528 wrecked against the coast and burned
1528 Biscainha? João de Freitas Vale de Eguas, close to the Canarie islands May 6, 1528 collision with another vessel
1528 S Asanto Antonio? Bernardim da Silveira Parcel de Sofala 1528 unknown
1528 unknown Afonso Vaz Azambujo Island of João de Nova 1528 unknown
1529 Conceição Henrique Moniz Barreto Between Goa and Ormuz end 1529? unknown
1529 S Roque Rui Mendes de Mesquita Ìndia end 1529? unknown
1529 Flor de la Mar Rui Gomes da Grã Between India and Ormuz end 1529? unknown
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