India Route Shipwrecks Project

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The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.
 
The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.
 +
 +
Built with varying resources - timber scarcity seems to have been the only constant thing in the life of the India Route - over a period of one and a half centuries, India naus were never described in detail, rarely painted or drawn by skilled artists, and disappeared from the history of technology almost without a trace during the mid-17th century.
 +
 +
Since most of these ships have been found and looted by sports divers and treasure hunting companies, it is imperative to inventory all ships found, and gather as much information as possible about them.
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 +
It is also paramount to reach out to the community of looters and treasure hunters in order to explain what is not known and try to establish working relations.
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Although it is not possible to work together - for lack of a common objective - it is possible to establish relations between archaeologists and those that destroy these hull remains in search of artifacts with market value.
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Portuguese Indiamen are so rare, so badly known to us, and so important for the history of European shipbuilding, that any reliable piece of information will great help our quest to understand them.
  
 
== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
Line 33: Line 43:
 
== Shipwrecks ==
 
== Shipwrecks ==
  
{|border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="2"
+
[[Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks]]
|-
+
  '''Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks'''<sup>1</sup>
+
!Armada!!Ship!!Captain!!Place!!Date!!Cause
+
|-
+
| 1497||Unknown||Gonçalo Nunes||Near Aguada de S. Brás||1497, November 25 to Dec 6||Burnt
+
|-
+
| 1497||São Rafael||Paulo da Gama||Baixos de São Rafael||January 13, 1499||Burnt
+
|-
+
| 1500||Unknown||Vasco de Ataíde||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1500||Unknown||Simão de Pina||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1500||Unknown||Bartolomeu Dias||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1500||Unknown||Aires Gomes da Silva||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1500||Unknown||Sancho de Tovar||Coast of Melinde||1501||Burnt
+
|-
+
| 1502||São Pantaleão?||Pedro Afonso de Aguiar||Parcel de Sofala||1502||Stranded after storm
+
|-
+
| 1503||N Sra da Conçeição||Pedro de Ataíde||Shallows of São Lázaro||1504||Stranded?
+
|-
+
| 1503||Rainha||Francisco de Albequerque||Baixos de São Lázaro?||1504||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1503||Unknown||Pedro Vaz da Veiga||Close to the Cape of Good Hope?||1503, 1504?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1503||Faial or Faia||Nicolau Coelho||Shallows of São Lázaro||1504||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1504||Unknown||Pedro de Mendonça||Close to Aguada de São Brás||1505||Stranded
+
|-
+
| 1505||Unknown||Lopo Sanches||Close to Cabo das Correntes||June or July 1505||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1505||Bela||Pedro Ferreira Fogaça||Coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador||May 4, 1505||Storm and bad shape of ship
+
|-
+
| 1505||Santiago||Pedro de Anhaia||Barra of Lisbon||March 25, 1505||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1505||São João||Francisco de Anhaia||Mozambique or Quiloa||1505||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1505||Santiago «Galega»||Pedro Barreto de Magalhães||Leaving the barra of Quiloa||April 6, 1506||Poor navigation?
+
|-
+
| 1506||Leitoa||Leonel Coutinho||Mozambique||1507||Bad shape of ship
+
|-
+
| 1506||São Vicente||Rui Perreira Coutinho||Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal||1506||Shipwrecked
+
|-
+
| 1506||N Sra da Luz||João Gomes de Abreu||Pate||1506||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1506||Santa Maria das Virtudes||Jorge Botelho||Pate||||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1506||Unknown||Job Queimado||Atlantic Ocean||1509?||Captured and plundered by the French
+
|-
+
| 1507||São Romão?||Vasco Gomes de Abreu||Between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1507||São João?||Pedro Lorenço||Between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1507||São Romão?||Lopo Cabral||Between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1507||São Simão||Rui Gonçalves de Valadares||Between Sofala and Mozambique||1507||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1507||Unknown||João Chanoca||River Senegal||1507||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1507||São Gabriel||Rui da Cunha||Unknown||January 15, 1509||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1508||Santa Clara||Jerónimo Teixeira||Between Malaca and India||1509-1510?||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1508||Unknown||Gonçalo de Sousa||Indian Ocean ?||1508-1509?||Purposely burnt, for lack of sailors
+
|-
+
| 1508||São João||Jorge de Aguiar||Tristão da Cunha islands||1508||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1509||São Vicente?||Francisco de Sá?||Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor||1510?||Stranded
+
|-
+
| 1509||São Jorge?||Sebastião de Sousa||Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor||1510?||Stranded
+
|-
+
| 1510||São Roque?||Manuel da Cunha||Mozambique||1510||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1511||S Maria da Luz?/São Pedro?||Jorge de Brito||Penedo de São Pedro||1511||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1512||S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes?||Francisco Nogueira||Baixos of Angoxa||1512||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1513||S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes?||Francisco Correia||São Lázaro island||1513||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1514||São Roque?||Luís Dantas||Cambaia||1514?||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1516||N Sra da Luz||Franciso de Sousa «Mancias»||Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço||August 1517?||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1516||São Simão?||António de Lima||Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço||August 1517?||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1519||Santo António||Manuel de Sousa||Melinde/Quiloa? or Manfia island||1519-1520?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1523||São Miguel||Aires da Cunha||Mozambique||1523?||Wrecked when retired for winter
+
|-
+
| 1524||Barbosa||Francisco de Brito||Between Mozambque and India||1524||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1524||São Jorge||D Fernando de Monroy||Low waters of Melinde||1524||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1524||Santa Helena||Cristovão Rosado||Mozambique||August 1524?||Wrecked against the coast
+
|-
+
| 1524||«Garça»||«Moçem» Gaspar||Close to Mozambique||1524||Mutiny
+
|-
+
| 1524||S Maria do Monte Sinai||D Luis de Meneses||Portuguese coast||1525||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1525||Corpo Santo||D Felipe de Castro||Cabo de Rosalgate||November 19, 1525||Wrecked against the coast
+
|-
+
| 1525||S Vicente or Victória||Francisco de Anhaia||Leaving Lisbon||April 1525||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1525||S Maria de Paraíso||Diogo de Melo||Close to Lisbon in the cachopos||July 4,1527||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1527||S António or Conceição||Manuel de Lacerda||Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço||1527||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1527||S Sebastião||Aleixo de Abreu||Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço||1527||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1527||S Ildefonso?||Pedro Aenes (french)||Unknown||1527?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1528||Flor da Rosa||Nuno da Cunha||Island of S Lourenço||August 23, 1528||Wrecked against the coast and burned
+
|-
+
| 1528||Biscainha?||João de Freitas||Vale de Eguas, close to the Canarie islands||May 6, 1528||Collision with another vessel
+
|-
+
| 1528||S Asanto Antonio?||Bernardim da Silveira||Parcel de Sofala||1528||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1528||Unknown||Afonso Vaz Azambujo||Island of João de Nova||1528||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1529||Conceição||Henrique Moniz Barreto||Between Goa and Ormuz||End 1529?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1529||S Roque||Rui Mendes de Mesquita||Ìndia||End 1529?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1529||Flor de la Mar||Rui Gomes da Grã||Between India and Ormuz||End 1529?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1530||S. Dinis or Ajuda?||Duarte da Fonseca||Socotorá||1530-1531?||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1530||Santa Maria||Diogo da Fonseca||Socotorá or Mozambique||1530?||Wrecked because of leakage and shortage of sailors
+
|-
+
| 1531||Esperança||Manuel de Macedo||Calecare, close to Cabo Comorim||1531||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1531||Castelo||Achilles Godinho||Unknown||1532?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1531||Trindade||Diogo Botelho Perreira||Unknown||1532?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1531||Vera Cruz||Manuel Botelho||Nicobar islands, Indian Ocean||1532||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1533||Bom Jesus or S João||D Francisco de Noronha||Cape of Good Hope?||1533||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1536||S Miguel||Duarto Barreto (or Pacheco)||Unknown||1537||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1537||S Paulo||Diogo Lopes de Sousa||S Lourenço island||1538?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1538||Galega||Bernardim da Silveira||Unknown||1538?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1539||Esperança (or Galaga?)||Pedro (or Diogo) Lopes de Sousa||S Lourenço island||End February 1540||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1541||Santiago||Martim Afonso de Sousa||Next to Baçaim||April/May 1542||Poor navigation, wrecked
+
|-
+
| 1542||Grifo||Balazar Jorge||Terceira||1543||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1546||Espírito Santo||Álvaro Barradas||Comoro islands||1547||Wrecked
+
|-
+
| 1547||São Tomé||D Pedro da Silva||Angoxa island||1547||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1547||Santa Cruz||Misser Bernardo Nacer||Socotorá||September 1547||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1549||Salvador «Burgalesa»||João Figueira de Barros||Close to Mozambique||1549||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1550||Flor de la Mar||D Diogo de Noronha||Indian coast, off Baçaim||May 31, 1551||Poor navigation?
+
|-
+
| 1550||São João||Manuel de Sousa Sepúlveda||South African coast||July 24, 1552||Wrecked because of bad shape and overloading
+
|-
+
| 1551||Trindade «Biscaínha»||Lopo de Sousa||Unknown||Feb 1552?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1552||Santiago||António Dias de Figueiredo||Between the Azores and Portugal||August 1553 (or 1554?)||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1552||Santa Cruz «Zambuco»||António Moniz Barreto||Ceitapor river, close to Goa||1552||Poor navigation, wrecked
+
|-
+
| 1553||Santo António||Manuel Tello de Menezes||Barra of Lisbon||Early 1553||Burned
+
|-
+
| 1553||São Bento||Fernão de Alvares cabral||Terra do Natal||April 23, 1554||Overloaded
+
|-
+
| 1554||São Boaventura||D Pedro de Mascaranhas||Barra de Goa||Late 1554||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1554||Santa Cruz «Burgalesa»||Belchior de Sousa||Unknown||1555||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1554||Victoria «Galega»||Francisco de Gouveia||Terceira Island||August 5, 1556||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1555||N Sra da Assunção «Algarvia, a Velha»||Jacome de Melo||Terceira Island||1556||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1555||Conceição «Algarvia, a Nova»||Francisco Nobre||Baixos de Pero dos Banhos||August 22, 1555||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1557||S Maria da Barca||D Luis Fernandes de Vasconcelos||Close to ilha de São Lourenço||March 17, 1559||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1557||N Sra das Relíquias «Flamenga»||Antónia Mendes de Castro||São Tomé?||August 20, 1560||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1557||Águia||Francisco Barreto||Mombaça||August 20, 1561||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1558||N Sra da Graça||João Rodrigues Salema de Carvalho||Between Terra do natal and Cape of Good Hope||November 24, 1559||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1560||São Paulo||Rui de Melo da Câmara||Sumatra Island||January 22, 1561||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1562||São Martinho||D. Jorge Manuel||Unknown||1563||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1562||Cedro||D Rodrigo (or Pedro) de Castro||Unknown||1563||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1563||N Sra da Graça||Diogo Lopes da Lima||Cape of Good Hope?||March 15, 1565||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1563||São Filipe||Vasco Lourenço de Barbuda||Barra de Goa||September 1563||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1564||Flor de la Mar||Damião de Sousa||Mozambique||1556||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1565||Tigre||Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos de Sousa||Mozambique||May 16, 1566||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1572||São Francisco||Pedro Leitão de Gamboa||Unknown||April 23, 1573||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1573||Santa Clara||Luís de Alter||Brazil||1575?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1576||São Jorge||Balthazar Pessanha||Entry of the barra of Mozambique||1576||Poor navigation?
+
|-
+
| 1577||São Pedro||Manuel de Medeiros||Baixos das Chagas or Pero dos Banhos||1578?||Poor navigation?
+
|-
+
| 1577||São João||Miguel de Arnide (or Arruda)||Baixos of Pero dos Banhos||1578?||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1581||São Pedro||Leonel de Lima||Parcel de Sofala||1583||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1582||São Luís||Luís Caldera||Rio de Quelimane/Parcel de Sofala||1582||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1584||Boa Viagem||Lourenço Soares de Melo||Unknown||1585||Overloaded
+
|-
+
| 1585||Santiago||Fernão de Mendonça||Baixos da Judia||August 19-25, 1585||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1585||São Lourenço||Fernão (or Reimão) Falcão||Mozambique||1586||Incapable to navigate
+
|-
+
| 1586||Reis Magos||João Gago de Andrade||São Tomé||1588?||Overloaded
+
|-
+
| 1586||Bom Jesus «Caranja»||António Gomes de Goes||India||End 1586?||Wrecked
+
|-
+
| 1586||São Salvador||Miguel de Abreu||Ormuz||1587||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1586||N Sra das Relíquias||Francisco Carvalho (or Cavaleiro)||Barra de Goa||January 5, 1587||Overloaded
+
|-
+
| 1586||São Filipe||João Trigueiros||Close to the Azores||June 8, 1587||Captured by Francis Drake
+
|-
+
| 1587||Santiago||Francisco de Brio Lobato||Terceira Island||August 14, 1588||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1588||São Tomé||Estevão de Veiga||Terra do Natal||March 17, 1589||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1589||Santo António||D João da Cunha||Between Mozambique and India||1589||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1590||Bom Jesus||Manuel de Sousa Coutinho||Baixos de Garajau||End of February,  1592||Overloaded?
+
|-
+
| 1590||São Lucas||Rui Gomes da Grã||Close to the Canary Islands or Madeira||End 1590||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1590||Espírito Santo||Diogo Pereira||In sight of Lisbon||October 28, 1590||Taken by the English
+
|-
+
| 1591||São Bernardo (or Bartolomeu?)||Simão Vaz Telo||Unknown||March 10, 1592||Overloaded
+
|-
+
| 1591||Madre de Deus||Fernão de Mendonça Furtado||Close to the Azores||August 15 or 19, 1592||Taken by the English
+
|-
+
| 1591||Santa Cruz||António Teixeira de Macedo||Close to the Azores||July 9, 1592||Burned to escape from the English
+
|-
+
| 1591||São Luís||Diogo Nunes Gramaxo||Mozambique||1592/1593?||Poor condition of ship
+
|-
+
| 1592||Santo Alberto||Julião de faria Cerveira||Penedo das Fontes, on the coast of Terra do Natal||March 26, 1593||Poor condition and overloading
+
|-
+
| 1592||N Sra da Nazaré||Braz Correia||Mozambique||July 15, 1593||Storm and overloading
+
|-
+
| 1593||Chagas||Francisco de Melo||Close to Faial Island||June 22, 1594||Overloading and enemy attack
+
|-
+
| 1593||São Bartolomeu||Lopo de Pina de Azavedo||Unknown||April 15, 1595||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1593||São Cristovão||António Teixeira de Macedo||Between Mozambique and Goa||August 17, 1594||Poor condition
+
|-
+
| 1593||São Pedro||Pedro Gonçalves||Pernambuco||August 4, 1594||Bad weather
+
|-
+
| 1594||São Paulo||Sebastião Gonçalves de Arvelos||Unknown||April 15, 1595||Overloaded?
+
|-
+
| 1595||Madre de Deus||António Teixeira de Macedo||Cabo das Baixas||End of January 1595||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1595||N Sra da Luz||João de Saldanha||Unknown||End February 1596||Overloading
+
|-
+
| 1595||N Sra da Victória||João Rodrigues Carreiro (or Correia)||Mozambique||1596||Overloading
+
|-
+
| 1595||N Sra do Rosário||Gaspar Palha Lobo||Mozambique||April 8, 1597||Overloading
+
|-
+
| 1596||S Sra de Guadaloupe (or Madre de Deus)||D Luís da Gama||Barra de Cochim||January 6, 1598||Burned before leaving
+
|-
+
| 1596||São Francisco||Vasco Borges da Fonseca||Azores (São Miguel?)||November 17, 1597||Wrecked on the coast, burned, escaping the English
+
|-
+
| 1599||N Sra do Castelo||Simão de Mendonça||Parcel de Sofala||1599||Wrecked
+
|-
+
| 1600||São Filipe||Gaspar Palha Lobo||Vale das Éguas (Canary Islands)||1600||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1600||São Valentim||D Julião (or João) de Noronha||Close to Sesimbra||June (or July) 8, 1602||Taken by the English
+
|-
+
| 1600||São João||Gonçalo Rodrigues Caldeira||Between Chaul and Goa||End 1600||Taken and burnt by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1601||Santo António||Manuel Paes da Veiga||Socotorá||End 1601||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1601||Santiago||António de Melo Castro||Island of Santa Helena||March 16, 1602||Taken by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1604||São Filipe||António de Mendonça||Angoxa (Cafraria coast)||1604||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1604||São Jacinto||Pedro da Silva||Terceira Island||1607 or 1608||Unable to navigate
+
|-
+
| 1605||São Salvador||Álvaro de Carvalho||Malaca||1606?||Burned after struggle with the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1605||N Sra de Betancor||Braz Teles de Menezes||Goa||1606||Lost
+
|-
+
| 1605||N Sra da Salvação||D João de Meneses||Barra of Lisbon||September 13, 1606||Ran aground on the coast
+
|-
+
| 1605||N Sra dos Mártires||Manuel Barreto Rolim||Next to São Juliãp tower||September 15, 1606||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1607||São Francisco||Francisco de Lima||Mozambique||September 1, 1607||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1607||N Sra do Loreto||Jerónimo Teles de Albuquerque||Ilhéus Queimados (Goa)||October 20, 1607||Taken and burnt by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1607||N Sra da Consolação||Diogo de Sousa||Mozambique||July 25, 1608||Burnt to escape the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1607||Santo André||Luís de Brito de Melo||Barra de Goa||May 27, 1608||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1608||N Sra da Ajuda||Miguel Correia Baharem||Costa da Mina||June 13, 1608||Bad navigation
+
|-
+
| 1608||N Sra da Salvação||D Luís de Sousa||Mombaça||April 17, 1609||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1608||N Sra da Oliveira||Pedro de Tovar Caminha||Close to Goa||1608?||Burnt to escape the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1608||N Sra da Palma||Cristovão de Sequeira de Alvarenga||Baixos de Moxincale (Angoxa)||December 15, 1608||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1608||São Bartolomeu||D Lopo de Almeida||Ceilão||1610?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1608||Bom Jesus||Francisco Sodré Pereira||Mozambique||August 17, 1608||Taken by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1608||Santo António||Diogo de Sousa de Meneses||Cabo Comorim||1610?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1608||Espírito Santo||D Constantino de Meneses||Terra do Natal||February 4, 1609||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1609||Bom Jesus||António Barroso||Baía||August 11 or 16, 1610||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1610||N Sra do Livramento||Manuel Teles de Távora||Leaving Lisbon||March 23, 1610||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1613||N Sra da Luz||Pedro Rodrigues||Manila||1614?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1613||N Sra da Nazaré||Luís Massane||Surrate||1615||Burned after struggle with the English
+
|-
+
| 1614||N Sra de Guadalupe||João Soares Henriques||Melinde coast||October 31, 1614||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1614||N Sra da Conceição||Francisco de Sousa Pereira||Coast of Brazil (Cape of Santo Agostinho)||May 1, 1614||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1614||N Sra dos Remédios||Paulo Rangel de Castelo Branco||Barra de Goa||January 28, 1616||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1614||N Sra da Luz||D Manuel Coutinho||Faial Island||April 7, 1615||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1614||São Boaventura||Manuel de Almada Freira (or Nuno Cunha?)||Maldives Islands||March 22, 1615||Sprung a leak
+
|-
+
| 1616||São Julião||D Manuel de Meneses||Comoro islands||August 18, 1616||Burned after struggle with the English
+
|-
+
| 1619||N Sra do Pópulo||Francisco de Melo||Close to the Querimbas Islands||1619||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1619||N Sra da Guia||Jerónimo Correia Peixoto||Goa||End 1620?||Unable to navigate
+
|-
+
| 1620||Santo Amaro||Pedro de Moraes Sarmento||Barra de Mombaça||December 10, 1620||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1620||São João Evangelista||José Pinto perreira||Close to Mombasa (Luabo river?)||1620||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1620||N Sra da Conceição||Filipe da Cruz da Silveira||An island close to Malaca||1620?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1621||N Sra da Conceição||Jerónimo Correia Peixoto||Ericeira||October 11 or 13, 1621||Burned by the Turks
+
|-
+
| 1621||São João Baptista||Pedro de Moraes Sarmento||West coast of Africa||September 29, 1622||Battle with the Dutch, ran aground on the coast after storm
+
|-
+
| 1622||Santa Teresa de Jesus||D Filipe Lobo||Entry of the barra of Mozambique||July 25, 1622||Stranded after struggle with the English
+
|-
+
| 1622||São José||D Francisco de Mascaranhas||Baixos de Moxincale||July 25, 1622||Stranded after struggle with the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1622||São Carlos||D Francisco Lobo||Mozambique||July 25, 1622||Stranded after struggle with the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1623||Santa Isabel||D Diogo de Castelo Branco/D João Coutinho||Mozambique||January 28, 1624||Storm while overwintering
+
|-
+
| 1623||São Simão||Bento de Freitas Mascarenhas||Mozambique||January 28, 1624||Storm while overwintering
+
|-
+
| 1623||São Braz||Cosme de Brito||Mozambique||January 28, 1624||Storm while overwintering
+
|-
+
| 1623||N Sra da Guia||Manuel Pessoa de Carvalho||Between Mozambique and Mascate||1623/24?||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1623||São Francisco Xavier||D António Telo de Meneses||At the entry of the Barra of Lisbon||October 23, 1625||Poor navigation?
+
|-
+
| 1623||Conceição||D Francisco de Sá||Santa Helena||July 24 or October 31, 1625||Storm, close to Cape of Good Hope
+
|-
+
| 1624||Conceição||Francisco Tovar da Cunha||Santa Helena||1625||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1625||Santa Helena||João Henrique de Ayala||Close to Baiona||January 9, 1627||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1625||São Bartolomeu||Vicente de Brito de Meneses||Close to Baiona||January 12, 1627||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1627||N Sra da Guia||Lourenço Mousinho||Leaving Pernambuco||October 31, 1628||Taken by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1629||Santiago||Francisco de Sousa de Castro||Baixos of João da Nova||August 1629||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1629||Santo Estevão||Vicente Leite de Quadros||Close to the Angolan coast||1629||Sprung a leak
+
|-
+
| 1629||N Sra da Guia||Roque Borges||Rio Tejo||April 3, 1629||Fire
+
|-
+
| 1629||São Gonçalo||Fernão Lobo de Meneses||Baía Formosa (close to the Cape of Good Hope)||August 3, 1630||Sunk while in the Baia
+
|-
+
| 1630||Santo Inácio de Loiola||António de Sousa Carvalho||Entry of the Tagus river||April 1, 1633||Bad condition of the ship
+
|-
+
| 1631||N Sra da Nazaré e Santo António||Cosme Luís||Madeira Island||1633||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1633||N Sra de Belem||José de Cabreira||Terra do Natal||June 16, 1635||Fire
+
|-
+
| 1633||Santo António||João da Costa||36 1/2 º ?||May 16, 1634||Fire
+
|-
+
| 1635||N Sra da Saúde||António Teles de Meneses||Málaga||December 14, 1636||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1635||Santa Catarina de Ribamar||Luís de Castanhedes de Vasconcelos||At the entry of the Barra of Lisbon||November 2, 1636||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1635||N Sra da Conceição||João da Costa||Rio das Maçãs||December 17, 1637||Burned by the Moors
+
|-
+
| 1636||São João de Deus||Gonçalo de Barros da Silva||Barra de Goa||March 1, 1638||Fire
+
|-
+
| 1641||N Sra da Quietação||Sancho de Faria da Silva||Close to Goa||September 22, 1641||Taken by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1642||São Bento||D João da Gama||Mozambique||December 27, 1642||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1644||Santo António||Amador Lousado||Ilha do Fogo (Angoxa)||August 25, 1644||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1644||Santo André||Gaspar Pereira dos Reis||Galiza||1650||Taken prisoner by the Spanish
+
|-
+
| 1646||N Sra da Atalaia||António da Câmara de Noronha||Close to Cape of Good Hope||July 5, 1647||Storm and poor condition of the ship
+
|-
+
| 1647||Santo Milagre||Miguel Jorge||Close to Mozambique||1647?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1647||Bom Jesus de Bouças||Matias Figueira||Close to Cape of Good Hope||1647||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1647||N Sra da Nazaré||António de Fonseca de Meneses||Close to Cape of Good Hope||1647||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1649||São Lourenço||Diogo Leite Pereira||Baixos de Moxincale||September 3, 1649||Poor navigation
+
|-
+
| 1649||N Sra do Bom Sucesso||Vasco de Azevedo Coutinho||Mozambique||1649?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1650||São João Evangelista||João da Costa||Goa||1652 or 1653?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1650||São Francisco||Luís Dultra Corte Real||Areal de Penafirme||August 28, 1650||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1653||N Sra da Penha de França||Pedro (or Lourenço) Botelho||Close to Pernambuco||1653||Taken by the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1654||Santa Helena||Manuel de Pina da Cunha||Barra de Goa||1654/55?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1657||N Sra da Boa Memória||Veríssimo Pereira Correia||Faial Island||1660||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1658||Bom Jesus de São Domingos||D Jerónimo Manuel||India||1660||Burned to escape from the Dutch
+
|-
+
| 1660||N Sra da Estrela||Manuel Botelho do Amaral||São Lourenço Island||1660||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1660||Conceição||Agostinho Rodrigues||Mozambique||1660?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1661||N Sra da Salvação||Ãgostinho Freire Guerra||Mozambique||1661?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1670||N Sra dos Remédios||Simão de Sousa Távora||Mombasa or Mozambique||1670?||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1681||N Sra dos Milagres||Manuel dos Santos Pinto||Unknown||1696||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1686||São Francisco Xavier||Domingos Luís de Oliveira||Mascarenhas Island||1687||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1691||Sacramento||Bento Ferreira de Almeida||Between Baçaim and Goa||September 1692||Storm
+
|-
+
| 1694||N Sra da Nazaré e Santo António||António Francisco||Mingale, before Cabo Delgado||1695||Unknown
+
|-
+
| 1698||N Sra das Necessidades (e Santo António)||João da Silva Manuel||Unknown||1699?||Unknown
+
|-
+
|}
+
  
== References ==
+
== People of the Portuguese Overseas Expansion ==
1. Guinote, P., Frutuoso, E., and Lopes, A., Naufragios e Outras Perdas da Carreira da India, Lisboa: Ed. Grupo de Trabalho do Ministerio da Educacao para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos, 1998.
+
 
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/projects%20ir%203%20whoiswho.htm Who was who in the Portuguese Overseas Expansion]
 +
 
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/projects%20ir%20vidaabordo1.htm Life Aboard]
 +
 
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/01guifrulopes/Pguinotemilit96.htm Recruitment]
 +
 
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/01guifrulopes/Pguinote-milit97.htm Military Aspects]
 +
 
 +
== Rise and Fall of the Carreira da Índia ==
 +
 
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/01guifrulopes/Pguinote-nauparis.htm Rise and Fall of the Carreira da Índia]
  
 
== Portuguese Shipwreck Accounts and Documents ==
 
== Portuguese Shipwreck Accounts and Documents ==
 
[[File:01 htm.jpg|thumb|Cover of the 18th-Century edition of História Trágico-Marítima.]]
 
[[File:01 htm.jpg|thumb|Cover of the 18th-Century edition of História Trágico-Marítima.]]
 
  
 
Shipwreck accounts have fascinated people probably ever since their were shipwrecks. In Portugal a number of accounts of voyages and shipwrecks of Indiamen from the Carreira da India have been edited since at least the 1550s, and survive to these days.
 
Shipwreck accounts have fascinated people probably ever since their were shipwrecks. In Portugal a number of accounts of voyages and shipwrecks of Indiamen from the Carreira da India have been edited since at least the 1550s, and survive to these days.
Line 572: Line 127:
  
 
D. João Soares de Alarcão (1580-1618). This manuscript is mentioned by Diogo Barbosa Machado in his Bibliotheca Lusitana (18th-Century) but it is not referred in Innocêncio Francisco da Silva's Diccionário Bibliographico Portuguez (19th-Century). It may be lost.
 
D. João Soares de Alarcão (1580-1618). This manuscript is mentioned by Diogo Barbosa Machado in his Bibliotheca Lusitana (18th-Century) but it is not referred in Innocêncio Francisco da Silva's Diccionário Bibliographico Portuguez (19th-Century). It may be lost.
 +
 +
[[Pepper Wreck]]
 
   
 
   
 
*'''''Madre de Deus''''', 1610
 
*'''''Madre de Deus''''', 1610
Line 606: Line 163:
  
 
Padre António Francisco Cordeiro (1651), in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.
 
Padre António Francisco Cordeiro (1651), in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.
 +
 +
*'''''São Pantaleão''''', 1651
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/projects%20ir%20saopantaleao1.htm A perda do galeão São Pantaleão (text by Paulo Monteiro)]
 +
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/projects%20ir%20saopantaleao2.htm Naufrágio do São Pantaleão (II) (Docs. transcribed by Paulo Monteiro]
 +
 +
[http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/projects%20ir%20saopantaleao3.htm Naufrágio do São Pantaleão (III) (Docs. transcribed by Paulo Monteiro)]
 +
 +
*'''''N. S. de Candelaria''''', 1693
 +
 +
Francisco Correia, in Ferreira, Joao Palma, Naufrágios viagens, fantasias & batalhas, Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 1980.
 +
 +
== Bibliography and Resources ==
 +
 +
[[Portuguese India Route Shipwrecks]]
 +
 +
== References ==
 +
1. Guinote, P., Frutuoso, E., and Lopes, A., Naufragios e Outras Perdas da Carreira da India, Lisboa: Ed. Grupo de Trabalho do Ministerio da Educacao para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos, 1998.
 +
 +
2. Filipe Castro,
 +
2002, India Route Project: Introduction, World Wide Web, URL, http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/, Nautical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M University.

Latest revision as of 15:15, 9 December 2010


The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.

Built with varying resources - timber scarcity seems to have been the only constant thing in the life of the India Route - over a period of one and a half centuries, India naus were never described in detail, rarely painted or drawn by skilled artists, and disappeared from the history of technology almost without a trace during the mid-17th century.

Since most of these ships have been found and looted by sports divers and treasure hunting companies, it is imperative to inventory all ships found, and gather as much information as possible about them.

It is also paramount to reach out to the community of looters and treasure hunters in order to explain what is not known and try to establish working relations.

Although it is not possible to work together - for lack of a common objective - it is possible to establish relations between archaeologists and those that destroy these hull remains in search of artifacts with market value.

Portuguese Indiamen are so rare, so badly known to us, and so important for the history of European shipbuilding, that any reliable piece of information will great help our quest to understand them.

Contents

Introduction

(View of Lisbon with ships from Genealogia do Infante D. Fernando, 1530-34, London, British Library.)

With his successful trip to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama opened a maritime route to the Asian markets of spices and exotic goods. The Portuguese crown sought to keep this commerce under state control, and sent a fleet to India almost every year, for over a century.

These voyages are reasonably well documented, as well as their routes, their ports of call, the names of the ship's captains, the Asian governors, and the notable soldiers.

The India Route

We know a good deal about the economics of this trade, its impact in 16th-Century Europe, the business networks that were generated and developed in various countries, and the role of the Church in the European expansion to East.

At present we don't know much about the principal vehicle of this expansion: the Portuguese Indiaman. In fact, it is amazing how little is known about the Portuguese naus that plowed the maritime route to India from 1498 to about 1650.

A handful of interesting texts and treatises, a small number of representations in charts, drawings, and paintings, and around twenty shipwrecks are all the clues we have to interpret, in the attempt to understand and reconstruct these ships.We know almost nothing about the standard Portuguese Indiaman, its routes, evolution, and performance at sea.

We know very little about the way in which these vessels were conceived and built, and there are enormous gaps in our knowledge about their size, shape, construction details, structural strength, design of upper work, or even basic rigging solutions.

View of Lisbon with ships from the so-called Livro de Horas de D. Manuel, 1517-c.26, MNAA, Lisbon.

From an estimated total of around 220 shipwrecks, only a few Portuguese naus have been found in the 20th century, and almost all were looted by curious divers or destroyed by treasure hunters.

Very few have been excavated or even surveyed by archaeologists, and the rare scholarly publications that resulted from the archaeological recording of these shipwrecks have become precious, considering the scarcity of information available.

This page is intended as a contribution to this understanding, and a guide through the bibliography and other information available pertaining to the Portuguese naus da Índia.

The main objective of this project is to gather, organize, and make easily accessible all available information on Portuguese Indiamen.

Shipwrecks

Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks

People of the Portuguese Overseas Expansion

Who was who in the Portuguese Overseas Expansion

Life Aboard

Recruitment

Military Aspects

Rise and Fall of the Carreira da Índia

Rise and Fall of the Carreira da Índia

Portuguese Shipwreck Accounts and Documents

Cover of the 18th-Century edition of História Trágico-Marítima.

Shipwreck accounts have fascinated people probably ever since their were shipwrecks. In Portugal a number of accounts of voyages and shipwrecks of Indiamen from the Carreira da India have been edited since at least the 1550s, and survive to these days. This form of literary fiction is imensely important for nautical archaeologists for a number of obvious reasons that stretch from the mere references to life aboard to the complex problems of identification of a particular shipwreck. Some of these accounts are widely known and have been translated into several languages. The best known have been bundled into a collection by Bernardo Gomes de Brito in 1735-36, under the title História Trágico-Marítima. Several other accounts of shipwrecks have been published, as well other documents pertaining to India Route shipwrecks, or other shipwrecks from the 16th and early 17th century period.

  • S. Pedro

Anonymous, in: Passos, Carlos de, "Navegação Portuguesa" in Revista Biblos, 1916.

  • S. Sebastião and Sto. António or Conceição, 1527

Anonymous, in: Passos, Carlos de, "Navegação Portuguesa" in Revista Biblos, 1916.

  • S. João, 1552

Anonymous in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • S. Bento, 1554

Manuel de Mesquita Perestrelo, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • N. S. Conceição, 1555

Manuel Rangel, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • Águia and Garça, 1559

Padre Manuel Barradas, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • S. Paulo, 1560

Henrique Dias, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

Frazao de Vasconcellos, in Boletim Geral das Colonias (1947?) and in a separate (author's) publication in Lisbon, 1948, has published "Naufragio da nau S. Paulo em um ilheu proximo da Samatra no ano de 1651. narracao inedita escrita em Goa em 1562 pelo Padre Manuel Alvares, S.J."

  • Nau of Albuquerque Coelho, 1565

António de Castro, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • S. Luis, 1582

Anonymous, in: Passos, Carlos de, "Navegação Portuguesa" in Revista Biblos, 1916.

  • Santiago, 1585

Manuel Godinho Cardoso, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • S. Thome, 1589

Diogo do Couto, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • Sto. Alberto, 1593

João Baptista Lavanha, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • Madre de Deus, 1595

Anonymous, in: Passos, Carlos de, "Navegação Portuguesa" in Revista Biblos, 1916.

  • S. Francisco, 1596

Padre Gaspar Afonso, in: Brito, Bernardo Gomes de, História Trágico-Marítima, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Publicações Europa-América, Colecção Livros de Bolso nº. 275 e 278.

  • N. S. Mártires, 1606

D. João Soares de Alarcão (1580-1618). This manuscript is mentioned by Diogo Barbosa Machado in his Bibliotheca Lusitana (18th-Century) but it is not referred in Innocêncio Francisco da Silva's Diccionário Bibliographico Portuguez (19th-Century). It may be lost.

Pepper Wreck

  • Madre de Deus, 1610

Vasconcelos, Frazao de, "Accao heroica de Andre Pessoa capitao da nau Madre de Deus em Nagasaqui no ano de 1610" in Anais da Academia Portuguesa de Historia (1944) 8: 301-325.

Boxer, Charles Ralph, "Relacao da perda da nau Madre de Deus no porto de Nagasaki em Janeiro de 1610" in Boletim da Agencia Geral das Colonias (1927) 1: 3-14.

  • N. S. Conceição, 1621

João Carvalho Mascarenhas, in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • S. João Baptista, 1622

Frei Nuno da Conceição (1625), in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • S. José, Sta. Theresa, and S. Carlos, 1622

Anonymous, in Passos, Carlos de, "Navegação Portuguesa" in Revista Biblos, 1916.

  • N. S. do Bom Despacho, 1630 (arrived safely)

Frei Nuno da Conceição(c.1631), in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • N. S. Belém, 1635

Joseph de Cabreira, in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • N. S. da Atalaia and Santissimo Sacramento, 1647

Bento Teixeira Feio, in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • S. Lourenço, 1649

Padre António Francisco Cordeiro (1651), in Sérgio, António, Naufrágios e Combates no Mar, Textos Seleccionados, Anotados, Comentados e Acompanhados de um Estudo por António Sérgio, 2 Vols., Lisboa: Edições Livros Horizonte, 1959.

  • São Pantaleão, 1651

A perda do galeão São Pantaleão (text by Paulo Monteiro)

Naufrágio do São Pantaleão (II) (Docs. transcribed by Paulo Monteiro

Naufrágio do São Pantaleão (III) (Docs. transcribed by Paulo Monteiro)

  • N. S. de Candelaria, 1693

Francisco Correia, in Ferreira, Joao Palma, Naufrágios viagens, fantasias & batalhas, Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda, 1980.

Bibliography and Resources

Portuguese India Route Shipwrecks

References

1. Guinote, P., Frutuoso, E., and Lopes, A., Naufragios e Outras Perdas da Carreira da India, Lisboa: Ed. Grupo de Trabalho do Ministerio da Educacao para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos, 1998.

2. Filipe Castro, 2002, India Route Project: Introduction, World Wide Web, URL, http://nautarch.tamu.edu/shiplab/, Nautical Archaeology Program, Texas A&M University.

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