India Route Shipwrecks Project
The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.
With his successful trip to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama opened a maritime route to the Asian markets of spices and exotic goods. The Portuguese crown sought to keep this commerce under state control, and sent a fleet to India almost every year, for over a century.
These voyages are reasonably well documented, as well as their routes, their ports of call, the names of the ship's captains, the Asian governors, and the notable soldiers.
We know a good deal about the economics of this trade, its impact in 16th-Century Europe, the business networks that were generated and developed in various countries, and the role of the Church in the European expansion to East.
At present we don't know much about the principal vehicle of this expansion: the Portuguese Indiaman. In fact, it is amazing how little is known about the Portuguese naus that plowed the maritime route to India from 1498 to about 1650.
A handful of interesting texts and treatises, a small number of representations in charts, drawings, and paintings, and around twenty shipwrecks are all the clues we have to interpret, in the attempt to understand and reconstruct these ships.We know almost nothing about the standard Portuguese Indiaman, its routes, evolution, and performance at sea.
We know very little about the way in which these vessels were conceived and built, and there are enormous gaps in our knowledge about their size, shape, construction details, structural strength, design of upper work, or even basic rigging solutions.
From an estimated total of around 220 shipwrecks, only a few Portuguese naus have been found in the 20th century, and almost all were looted by curious divers or destroyed by treasure hunters.
Very few have been excavated or even surveyed by archaeologists, and the rare scholarly publications that resulted from the archaeological recording of these shipwrecks have become precious, considering the scarcity of information available.
This page is intended as a contribution to this understanding, and a guide through the bibliography and other information available pertaining to the Portuguese naus da Índia.
The main objective of this project is to gather, organize, and make easily accessible all available information on Portuguese Indiamen.
|1497||Unknown||Gonçalo Nunes||Near Aguada de S. Brás||Nov 25 to Dec 6, 1497||Burnt|
|1497||São Rafael||Paulo da Gama||Baixos de São Rafael||Jan 13, 1499||Burnt|
|1500||Unknown||Vasco de Ataíde||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm|
|1500||Unknown||Simão de Pina||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm|
|1500||Unknown||Bartolomeu Dias||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm|
|1500||Unknown||Aires Gomes da Silva||South Atlantic||May 23 or 24, 1500||Storm|
|1500||Unknown||Sancho de Tovar||Coast of Melinde||1501||Burnt|
|1502||São Pantaleão?||Pedro Afonso de Aguiar||Parcel de Sofala||1502||Stranded after storm|
|1503||N Sra da Conçeição||Pedro de Ataíde||shallows of São Lázaro||1504||Stranded?|
|1503||Rainha||Francisco de Albequerque||Baixos de São Lázaro?||1504||Unknown|
|1503||Unknown||Pedro Vaz da Veiga||Close to the Cape of Good Hope?||1503, 1504?||Unknown|
|1503||Faial or Faia||Nicolau Coelho||Shallows of São Lázaro||1504||Unknown|
|1504||Unknown||Pedro de Mendonça||Close to Aguada de São Brás||1505||Stranded|
|1505||Unknown||Lopo Sanches||Close to Cabo das Correntes||June or July 1505||Storm|
|1505||Bela||Pedro Ferreira Fogaça||Coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador||May 4, 1505||Storm and bad shape of ship|
|1505||Santiago||Pedro de Anhaia||Barra of Lisbon||March 25, 1505||Poor navigation|
|1505||São João||Francisco de Anhaia||Mozambique or Quiloa||1505||Unknown|
|1505||Santiago «Galega»||Pedro Barreto de Magalhães||Leaving the barra of Quiloa||April 6, 1506||Poor navigation?|
|1506||Leitoa||Leonel Coutinho||Mozambique||1507||Bad shape of ship|
|1506||São Vicente||Rui Perreira Coutinho||Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal||1506||Shipwrecked|