India Route Shipwrecks Project

From NAPwiki
Revision as of 17:24, 7 December 2010 by Kelby.rose (Talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search


The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.

Introduction

(View of Lisbon with ships from Genealogia do Infante D. Fernando, 1530-34, London, British Library.)

With his successful trip to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama opened a maritime route to the Asian markets of spices and exotic goods. The Portuguese crown sought to keep this commerce under state control, and sent a fleet to India almost every year, for over a century.

These voyages are reasonably well documented, as well as their routes, their ports of call, the names of the ship's captains, the Asian governors, and the notable soldiers.

The India Route

We know a good deal about the economics of this trade, its impact in 16th-Century Europe, the business networks that were generated and developed in various countries, and the role of the Church in the European expansion to East.

At present we don't know much about the principal vehicle of this expansion: the Portuguese Indiaman. In fact, it is amazing how little is known about the Portuguese naus that plowed the maritime route to India from 1498 to about 1650.

A handful of interesting texts and treatises, a small number of representations in charts, drawings, and paintings, and around twenty shipwrecks are all the clues we have to interpret, in the attempt to understand and reconstruct these ships.We know almost nothing about the standard Portuguese Indiaman, its routes, evolution, and performance at sea.

We know very little about the way in which these vessels were conceived and built, and there are enormous gaps in our knowledge about their size, shape, construction details, structural strength, design of upper work, or even basic rigging solutions.

View of Lisbon with ships from the so-called Livro de Horas de D. Manuel, 1517-c.26, MNAA, Lisbon.

From an estimated total of around 220 shipwrecks, only a few Portuguese naus have been found in the 20th century, and almost all were looted by curious divers or destroyed by treasure hunters.

Very few have been excavated or even surveyed by archaeologists, and the rare scholarly publications that resulted from the archaeological recording of these shipwrecks have become precious, considering the scarcity of information available.

This page is intended as a contribution to this understanding, and a guide through the bibliography and other information available pertaining to the Portuguese naus da Índia.

The main objective of this project is to gather, organize, and make easily accessible all available information on Portuguese Indiamen.

Shipwrecks

Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks
Armada Ship Captain Place Date Cause
1497 Unknown Gonçalo Nunes Near Aguada de S. Brás Nov 25 to Dec 6, 1497 Burnt
1497 São Rafael Paulo da Gama Baixos de São Rafael Jan 13, 1499 Burnt
1500 Unknown Vasco de Ataíde South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Simão de Pina South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Bartolomeu Dias South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Aires Gomes da Silva South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Sancho de Tovar Coast of Melinde 1501 Burnt
1502 São Pantaleão? Pedro Afonso de Aguiar Parcel de Sofala 1502 Stranded after storm
1503 N Sra da Conçeição Pedro de Ataíde shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Stranded?
1503 Rainha Francisco de Albequerque Baixos de São Lázaro? 1504 Unknown
1503 Unknown Pedro Vaz da Veiga Close to the Cape of Good Hope? 1503, 1504? Unknown
1503 Faial or Faia Nicolau Coelho Shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Unknown
1504 Unknown Pedro de Mendonça Close to Aguada de São Brás 1505 Stranded
1505 Unknown Lopo Sanches Close to Cabo das Correntes June or July 1505 Storm
1505 Bela Pedro Ferreira Fogaça Coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador May 4, 1505 Storm and bad shape of ship
1505 Santiago Pedro de Anhaia Barra of Lisbon March 25, 1505 Poor navigation
1505 São João Francisco de Anhaia Mozambique or Quiloa 1505 Unknown
1505 Santiago «Galega» Pedro Barreto de Magalhães Leaving the barra of Quiloa April 6, 1506 Poor navigation?
1506 Leitoa Leonel Coutinho Mozambique 1507 Bad shape of ship
1506 São Vicente Rui Perreira Coutinho Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal 1506 Shipwrecked
Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks
Armada Ship Captain Place Date Cause
1497 unknown Gonçalo Nunes Near Aguada de S. Brás 1497, Nov 25 to Dec 6 burnt
1497 São Rafael Paulo da Gama Baixos de São Rafael Jan 13, 1499 burnt
1500 unknown Vasco de Ataíde South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Simão de Pina South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Bartolomeu Dias South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Aires Gomes da Silva South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 storm
1500 unknown Sancho de Tovar Coast of Melinde 1501 burnt
1502 São Pantaleão? Pedro Afonso de Aguiar Parcel de Sofala 1502 stranded after storm
1503 N Sra da Conçeição Pedro de Ataíde shallows of São Lázaro 1504 stranded?
1503 Rainha Francisco de Albequerque Baixos de São Lázaro? 1504 unknown
1503 unknown Pedro Vaz da Veiga close to the Cape of Good Hope? 1503, 1504? unknown
1503 Faial or Faia Nicolau Coelho shallows of São Lázaro 1504 unknown
1504 unknown Pedro de Mendonça close to Aguada de São Brás 1505 stranded
1505 unknown Lopo Sanches close to Cabo das Correntes june or july 1505 storm
1505 Bela Pedro Ferreira Fogaça coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador May 4, 1505 storm and bad shape of ship
1505 Santiago Pedro de Anhaia Barra of Lisbon March 25, 1505 poor navigation
1505 São João Francisco de Anhaia Mozambique or Quiloa 1505 unknown
1505 Santiago «Galega» Pedro Barreto de Magalhães leaving the barra of Quiloa April 6, 1506 poor navigation?
1506 Leitoa Leonel Coutinho Mozambique 1507 bad shape of ship
1506 São Vicente Rui Perreira Coutinho Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal 1506 shipwrecked
1506 N Sra da Luz João Gomes de Abreu Pate 1506 unknown
1506 Santa Maria das Virtudes Jorge Botelho Pate
1506 unknown Job Queimado Atlantic Ocean 1509? captured and plundered by the French
1507 São Romão? Vasco Gomes de Abreu between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São João? Pedro Lorenço between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São Romão? Lopo Cabral between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 São Simão Rui Gonçalves de Valadares between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 unknown
1507 unknown João Chanoca River Senegal 1507 poor navigation
1507 São Gabriel Rui da Cunha unknown Jan 15, 1509 unknown
1508 Santa Clara Jerónimo Teixeira between Malaca and India 1509-1510? poor navigation
1508 unknown Gonçalo de Sousa Indian Ocean ? 1508-1509? purposely burnt, for lack of sailors
1508 São João Jorge de Aguiar Tristão da Cunha islands 1508 unknown
1509 São Vicente? Francisco de Sá? Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? stranded
1509 São Jorge? Sebastião de Sousa Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? stranded
1510 São Roque? Manuel da Cunha Mozambique 1510 unknown
1511 S Maria da Luz?/São Pedro? Jorge de Brito Penedo de São Pedro 1511 unknown
1512 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Nogueira Baixos of Angoxa 1512 unknown
1513 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Correia São Lázaro island 1513 unknown
1514 São Roque? Luís Dantas Cambaia 1514? poor navigation
1516 N Sra da Luz Franciso de Sousa «Mancias» Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? storm
1516 São Simão? António de Lima Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? storm
1519 Santo António Manuel de Sousa Melinde/Quiloa? or Manfia island 1519-1520? unknown
1523 São Miguel Aires da Cunha Mozambique 1523? wrecked when retired for winter
1524 Barbosa Francisco de Brito between Mozambque and India 1524 unknown
1524 São Jorge D Fernando de Monroy low waters of Melinde 1524 unknown
1524 Santa Helena Cristovão Rosado Mozambique August 1524? wrecked against the coast
1524 «Garça» «Moçem» Gaspar close to Mozambique 1524 mutiny
1524 S Maria do Monte Sinai D Luis de Meneses Portuguese coast 1525
1525 Corpo Santo D Felipe de Castro Cabo de Rosalgate Nov 19, 1525 wrecked against the coast
1525 S Vicente or Victória Francisco de Anhaia Leaving Lisbon April 1525 unknown
1525 S Maria de Paraíso Diogo de Melo close to Lisbon in the cachopos July 4,1527 unknown
1527 S António or Conceição Manuel de Lacerda Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 poor navigation
1527 S Sebastião Aleixo de Abreu Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 poor navigation
1527 S Ildefonso? Pedro Aenes (french) nknown 1527? unknown
1528 Flor da Rosa Nuno da Cunha Island of S Lourenço Aug 23, 1528 wrecked against the coast and burned
1528 Biscainha? João de Freitas Vale de Eguas, close to the Canarie islands May 6, 1528 collision with another vessel
1528 S Asanto Antonio? Bernardim da Silveira Parcel de Sofala 1528 unknown
1528 unknown Afonso Vaz Azambujo Island of João de Nova 1528 unknown
1529 Conceição Henrique Moniz Barreto Between Goa and Ormuz end 1529? unknown
1529 S Roque Rui Mendes de Mesquita Ìndia end 1529? unknown
1529 Flor de la Mar Rui Gomes da Grã Between India and Ormuz end 1529? unknown
1530 S. Dinis or Ajuda? Duarte da Fonseca Socotorá 1530-1531? storm
1530 Santa Maria Diogo da Fonseca Socotorá or Mozambique 1530? wrecked becuase leakage and shortage of sailors
1531 Esperança Manuel de Macedo Calecare, close to Cabo Comorim 1531 poor navigation
1531 Castelo Achilles Godinho unknown 1532? unknown
1531 Trindade Diogo Botelho Perreira unknown 1532? unknown
1531 Vera Cruz Manuel Botelho Nicobar islands, Indian Ocean 1532 poor navigation
1533 Bom Jesus or S João D Francisco de Noronha Cape of Good Hope? 1533 storm
1536 S Miguel Duarto Barreto (or Pacheco) unknown 1537 unknown
1537 S Paulo Diogo Lopes de Sousa S Lourenço island 1538? unknown
1538 Galega Bernardim da Silveira unknown 1538? unknown
1539 Esperança (or Galaga?) Pedro (or Diogo) Lopes de Sousa S Lourenço island end Feb 1540 unknown
1541 Santiago Martim Afonso de Sousa next to Baçaim April/May 1542 poor navigation, wrecked
1542 Grifo Balazar Jorge Terceira 1543 unknown
1546 Espírito Santo Álvaro Barradas Comoro islands 1547 wrecked
1547 São Tomé D Pedro da Silva Angoxa island 1547 unknown
1547 Santa Cruz Misser Bernardo Nacer Socotorá Sept 1547 unknown
1549 Salvador «Burgalesa» João Figueira de Barros close to Mozambique 1549 unknown
1550 Flor de la Mar D Diogo de Noronha Indian coast, off Baçaim May 31, 1551 poor navigation?
1550 São João Manuel de Sousa Sepúlveda South African coast July 24, 1552 wrecked because of bad shape and overloading
1551 Trindade «Biscaínha» Lopo de Sousa unknown Feb 1552? unknown
1552 Santiago António Dias de Figueiredo between the Azores and Portugal Aug 1553 (or 1554?) unknown
1552 Santa Cruz «Zambuco» António Moniz Barreto Ceitapor river, close to Goa 1552 poor navigation, wrecked
1553 Santo António Manuel Tello de Menezes barra of Lisbon early 1553 burned
1553 São Bento Fernão de Alvares cabral Terra do Natal April 23, 1554 overloaded
1554 São Boaventura D Pedro de Mascaranhas Barra de Goa late 1554 storm
1554 Santa Cruz «Burgalesa» Belchior de Sousa unknown 1555 unknown
1554 Victoria «Galega» Francisco de Gouveia Terceira Island Aug 5, 1556 unknown
1555 N Sra da Assunção «Algarvia, a Velha» Jacome de Melo Terceira Island 1556 storm
1555 Conceição «Algarvia, a Nova» Francisco Nobre Baixos de Pero dos Banhos Aug 22, 1555 poor navigation
1557 S Maria da Barca D Luis Fernandes de Vasconcelos close to ilha de São Lourenço March 17, 1559 unknown
1557 N Sra das Relíquias «Flamenga» Antónia Mendes de Castro São Tomé? Aug 20, 1560 unknown
1557 Águia Francisco Barreto Mombaça Aug 20, 1561 poor condition of ship
1558 N Sra da Graça João Rodrigues Salema de Carvalho between Terra do natal and Cape of Good Hope Nov 24, 1559 storm
1560 São Paulo Rui de Melo da Câmara Sumatra Island Jan 22, 1561 storm
1562 São Martinho D. Jorge Manuel unknown 1563 unknown
1562 Cedro D Rodrigo (or Pedro) de Castro unknown 1563 unknown
1563 N Sra da Graça Diogo Lopes da Lima Cape of Good Hope? March 15, 1565 unknown
1563 São Filipe Vasco Lourenço de Barbuda Barra de Goa Sept 1563 storm
1564 Flor de la Mar Damião de Sousa Mozambique 1556 poor condition of ship
1565 Tigre Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos de Sousa Mozambique May 16, 1566 poor navigation
1572 São Francisco Pedro Leitão de Gamboa unknown April 23, 1573 unknown
1573 Santa Clara Luís de Alter Brazil 1575? unknown
1576 São Jorge Balthazar Pessanha entry of the barra of Mozambique 1576 poor navigation?
1577 São Pedro Manuel de Medeiros Baixos das Chagas or Pero dos Banhos 1578? poor navigation?
1577 São João Miguel de Arnide (or Arruda) Baixos of Pero dos Banhos 1578? poor navigation
1581 São Pedro Leonel de Lima Parcel de Sofala 1583 poor condition of ship
1582 São Luís Luís Caldera Rio de Quelimane/Parcel de Sofala 1582 poor navigation
1584 Boa Viagem Lourenço Soares de Melo unknown 1585 overloaded
1585 Santiago Fernão de Mendonça Baixos da Judia Aug 19-25, 1585 poor navigation
1585 São Lourenço Fernão (or Reimão) Falcão Mozambique 1586 incapable to navigate
1586 Reis Magos João Gago de Andrade São Tomé 1588? overloaded
1586 Bom Jesus «Caranja» António Gomes de Goes India end 1586? wrecked
1586 São Salvador Miguel de Abreu Ormuz 1587 poor condition of ship
1586 N Sra das Relíquias Francisco Carvalho (or Cavaleiro) Barra de Goa Jan 5, 1587 overloaded
1586 São Filipe João Trigueiros close to the Azores June 8, 1587 captured by Francis Drake
1587 Santiago Francisco de Brio Lobato Terceira Island Aug 14, 1588 poor navigation
1588 São Tomé Estevão de Veiga Terra do Natal March 17, 1589 poor condition of ship
1589 Santo António D João da Cunha between Mozambique and India 1589 unknown
1590 Bom Jesus Manuel de Sousa Coutinho Baixos de Garajau end of Feb, 1592 overloaded?
1590 São Lucas Rui Gomes da Grã close to the Canarie islands or Madeira end 1590 unknown
1590 Espírito Santo Diogo Pereira in sight of Lisbon Oct 28, 1590 taken by the English
1591 São Bernardo (or Bartolomeu?) Simão Vaz Telo unknown March 10, 1592 overloaded
1591 Madre de Deus Fernão de Mendonça Furtado close to the Azores Aug 15 or 19, 1592 taken by the English
1591 Santa Cruz António Teixeira de Macedo close to the Azores July 9, 1592 burned to escape from the English
1591 São Luís Diogo Nunes Gramaxo Mozambique 1592/1593? poor condition of ship
1592 Santo Alberto Julião de faria Cerveira Penedo das Fontes, on the coast of Terra do Natal March 26, 1593 poor condition and overloading
1592 N Sra da Nazaré Braz Correia Mozambique July 15, 1593 storm and overloading
1593 Chagas Francisco de Melo close to Faial Island June 22, 1594 overloading and enemy attack
1593 São Bartolomeu Lopo de Pina de Azavedo unknown April15, 1595 unknown
1593 São Cristovão António Teixeira de Macedo between Mozambique and Goa Aug 17, 1594 poor condition
1593 São Pedro Pedro Gonçalves Pernambuco Aug 4, 1594 bad weather
1594 São Paulo Sebastião Gonçalves de Arvelos unknown April 15, 1595 overloaded?
1595 Madre de Deus António Teixeira de Macedo Cabo das Baixas end of Jan 1595 unknown
1595 N Sra da Luz João de Saldanha unknown end Feb 1596 overloading
1595 N Sra da Victória João Rodrigues Carreiro (or Correia) Mozambique 1596 overloading
1595 N Sra do Rosário Gaspar Palha Lobo Mozambique April 8, 1597 overloading
1596 S Sra de guadaloupe (or Madre de Deus) D Luís da gama Barra de Cochim Jan 6, 1598 burned before leaving
1596 São Francisco Vasco Borges da Fonseca Azores (São Miguel?) Nov 17, 1597 wrecked on the coast, burned, escaping the English
1599 N Sra do Castelo Simão de Mendonça Parcel de Sofala 1599 wrecked
Personal tools