India Route Shipwrecks Project

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The objective of this project is the study of the Portuguese Indiamen that sailed annually from Lisbon to India, from 1498 to the 17th century, engaged in the commerce of pepper, spices, cotton, and many other goods.



(View of Lisbon with ships from Genealogia do Infante D. Fernando, 1530-34, London, British Library.)

With his successful trip to India, around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama opened a maritime route to the Asian markets of spices and exotic goods. The Portuguese crown sought to keep this commerce under state control, and sent a fleet to India almost every year, for over a century.

These voyages are reasonably well documented, as well as their routes, their ports of call, the names of the ship's captains, the Asian governors, and the notable soldiers.

The India Route

We know a good deal about the economics of this trade, its impact in 16th-Century Europe, the business networks that were generated and developed in various countries, and the role of the Church in the European expansion to East.

At present we don't know much about the principal vehicle of this expansion: the Portuguese Indiaman. In fact, it is amazing how little is known about the Portuguese naus that plowed the maritime route to India from 1498 to about 1650.

A handful of interesting texts and treatises, a small number of representations in charts, drawings, and paintings, and around twenty shipwrecks are all the clues we have to interpret, in the attempt to understand and reconstruct these ships.We know almost nothing about the standard Portuguese Indiaman, its routes, evolution, and performance at sea.

We know very little about the way in which these vessels were conceived and built, and there are enormous gaps in our knowledge about their size, shape, construction details, structural strength, design of upper work, or even basic rigging solutions.

View of Lisbon with ships from the so-called Livro de Horas de D. Manuel, 1517-c.26, MNAA, Lisbon.

From an estimated total of around 220 shipwrecks, only a few Portuguese naus have been found in the 20th century, and almost all were looted by curious divers or destroyed by treasure hunters.

Very few have been excavated or even surveyed by archaeologists, and the rare scholarly publications that resulted from the archaeological recording of these shipwrecks have become precious, considering the scarcity of information available.

This page is intended as a contribution to this understanding, and a guide through the bibliography and other information available pertaining to the Portuguese naus da Índia.

The main objective of this project is to gather, organize, and make easily accessible all available information on Portuguese Indiamen.


Portuguese Indiamen Shipwrecks1
Armada Ship Captain Place Date Cause
1497 Unknown Gonçalo Nunes Near Aguada de S. Brás 1497, November 25 to Dec 6 Burnt
1497 São Rafael Paulo da Gama Baixos de São Rafael January 13, 1499 Burnt
1500 Unknown Vasco de Ataíde South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Simão de Pina South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Bartolomeu Dias South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Aires Gomes da Silva South Atlantic May 23 or 24, 1500 Storm
1500 Unknown Sancho de Tovar Coast of Melinde 1501 Burnt
1502 São Pantaleão? Pedro Afonso de Aguiar Parcel de Sofala 1502 Stranded after storm
1503 N Sra da Conçeição Pedro de Ataíde Shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Stranded?
1503 Rainha Francisco de Albequerque Baixos de São Lázaro? 1504 Unknown
1503 Unknown Pedro Vaz da Veiga Close to the Cape of Good Hope? 1503, 1504? Unknown
1503 Faial or Faia Nicolau Coelho Shallows of São Lázaro 1504 Unknown
1504 Unknown Pedro de Mendonça Close to Aguada de São Brás 1505 Stranded
1505 Unknown Lopo Sanches Close to Cabo das Correntes June or July 1505 Storm
1505 Bela Pedro Ferreira Fogaça Coast of Guinee, latitude of Equador May 4, 1505 Storm and bad shape of ship
1505 Santiago Pedro de Anhaia Barra of Lisbon March 25, 1505 Poor navigation
1505 São João Francisco de Anhaia Mozambique or Quiloa 1505 Unknown
1505 Santiago «Galega» Pedro Barreto de Magalhães Leaving the barra of Quiloa April 6, 1506 Poor navigation?
1506 Leitoa Leonel Coutinho Mozambique 1507 Bad shape of ship
1506 São Vicente Rui Perreira Coutinho Coast of São Lorenço or Terra do Natal 1506 Shipwrecked
1506 N Sra da Luz João Gomes de Abreu Pate 1506 Unknown
1506 Santa Maria das Virtudes Jorge Botelho Pate Unknown
1506 Unknown Job Queimado Atlantic Ocean 1509? Captured and plundered by the French
1507 São Romão? Vasco Gomes de Abreu Between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 Unknown
1507 São João? Pedro Lorenço Between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 Unknown
1507 São Romão? Lopo Cabral Between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 Unknown
1507 São Simão Rui Gonçalves de Valadares Between Sofala and Mozambique 1507 Unknown
1507 Unknown João Chanoca River Senegal 1507 Poor navigation
1507 São Gabriel Rui da Cunha Unknown January 15, 1509 Unknown
1508 Santa Clara Jerónimo Teixeira Between Malaca and India 1509-1510? Poor navigation
1508 Unknown Gonçalo de Sousa Indian Ocean ? 1508-1509? Purposely burnt, for lack of sailors
1508 São João Jorge de Aguiar Tristão da Cunha islands 1508 Unknown
1509 São Vicente? Francisco de Sá? Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? Stranded
1509 São Jorge? Sebastião de Sousa Baixos of Padua in front of Cananor 1510? Stranded
1510 São Roque? Manuel da Cunha Mozambique 1510 Unknown
1511 S Maria da Luz?/São Pedro? Jorge de Brito Penedo de São Pedro 1511 Unknown
1512 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Nogueira Baixos of Angoxa 1512 Unknown
1513 S António?/S Gião?/N Sra das Virtudes? Francisco Correia São Lázaro island 1513 Unknown
1514 São Roque? Luís Dantas Cambaia 1514? Poor navigation
1516 N Sra da Luz Franciso de Sousa «Mancias» Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? Storm
1516 São Simão? António de Lima Baixos of S Lázaro, island of S Lorenço August 1517? Storm
1519 Santo António Manuel de Sousa Melinde/Quiloa? or Manfia island 1519-1520? Unknown
1523 São Miguel Aires da Cunha Mozambique 1523? Wrecked when retired for winter
1524 Barbosa Francisco de Brito Between Mozambque and India 1524 Unknown
1524 São Jorge D Fernando de Monroy Low waters of Melinde 1524 Unknown
1524 Santa Helena Cristovão Rosado Mozambique August 1524? Wrecked against the coast
1524 «Garça» «Moçem» Gaspar Close to Mozambique 1524 Mutiny
1524 S Maria do Monte Sinai D Luis de Meneses Portuguese coast 1525 Unknown
1525 Corpo Santo D Felipe de Castro Cabo de Rosalgate November 19, 1525 Wrecked against the coast
1525 S Vicente or Victória Francisco de Anhaia Leaving Lisbon April 1525 Unknown
1525 S Maria de Paraíso Diogo de Melo Close to Lisbon in the cachopos July 4,1527 Unknown
1527 S António or Conceição Manuel de Lacerda Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 Poor navigation
1527 S Sebastião Aleixo de Abreu Bay of Santiago, on the island of S Lourenço 1527 Poor navigation
1527 S Ildefonso? Pedro Aenes (french) Unknown 1527? Unknown
1528 Flor da Rosa Nuno da Cunha Island of S Lourenço August 23, 1528 Wrecked against the coast and burned
1528 Biscainha? João de Freitas Vale de Eguas, close to the Canarie islands May 6, 1528 Collision with another vessel
1528 S Asanto Antonio? Bernardim da Silveira Parcel de Sofala 1528 Unknown
1528 Unknown Afonso Vaz Azambujo Island of João de Nova 1528 Unknown
1529 Conceição Henrique Moniz Barreto Between Goa and Ormuz End 1529? Unknown
1529 S Roque Rui Mendes de Mesquita Ìndia End 1529? Unknown
1529 Flor de la Mar Rui Gomes da Grã Between India and Ormuz End 1529? Unknown
1530 S. Dinis or Ajuda? Duarte da Fonseca Socotorá 1530-1531? Storm
1530 Santa Maria Diogo da Fonseca Socotorá or Mozambique 1530? Wrecked because of leakage and shortage of sailors
1531 Esperança Manuel de Macedo Calecare, close to Cabo Comorim 1531 Poor navigation
1531 Castelo Achilles Godinho Unknown 1532? Unknown
1531 Trindade Diogo Botelho Perreira Unknown 1532? Unknown
1531 Vera Cruz Manuel Botelho Nicobar islands, Indian Ocean 1532 Poor navigation
1533 Bom Jesus or S João D Francisco de Noronha Cape of Good Hope? 1533 Storm
1536 S Miguel Duarto Barreto (or Pacheco) Unknown 1537 Unknown
1537 S Paulo Diogo Lopes de Sousa S Lourenço island 1538? Unknown
1538 Galega Bernardim da Silveira Unknown 1538? Unknown
1539 Esperança (or Galaga?) Pedro (or Diogo) Lopes de Sousa S Lourenço island End February 1540 Unknown
1541 Santiago Martim Afonso de Sousa Next to Baçaim April/May 1542 Poor navigation, wrecked
1542 Grifo Balazar Jorge Terceira 1543 Unknown
1546 Espírito Santo Álvaro Barradas Comoro islands 1547 Wrecked
1547 São Tomé D Pedro da Silva Angoxa island 1547 Unknown
1547 Santa Cruz Misser Bernardo Nacer Socotorá September 1547 Unknown
1549 Salvador «Burgalesa» João Figueira de Barros Close to Mozambique 1549 Unknown
1550 Flor de la Mar D Diogo de Noronha Indian coast, off Baçaim May 31, 1551 Poor navigation?
1550 São João Manuel de Sousa Sepúlveda South African coast July 24, 1552 Wrecked because of bad shape and overloading
1551 Trindade «Biscaínha» Lopo de Sousa Unknown Feb 1552? Unknown
1552 Santiago António Dias de Figueiredo Between the Azores and Portugal August 1553 (or 1554?) Unknown
1552 Santa Cruz «Zambuco» António Moniz Barreto Ceitapor river, close to Goa 1552 Poor navigation, wrecked
1553 Santo António Manuel Tello de Menezes Barra of Lisbon Early 1553 Burned
1553 São Bento Fernão de Alvares cabral Terra do Natal April 23, 1554 Overloaded
1554 São Boaventura D Pedro de Mascaranhas Barra de Goa Late 1554 Storm
1554 Santa Cruz «Burgalesa» Belchior de Sousa Unknown 1555 Unknown
1554 Victoria «Galega» Francisco de Gouveia Terceira Island August 5, 1556 Unknown
1555 N Sra da Assunção «Algarvia, a Velha» Jacome de Melo Terceira Island 1556 Storm
1555 Conceição «Algarvia, a Nova» Francisco Nobre Baixos de Pero dos Banhos August 22, 1555 Poor navigation
1557 S Maria da Barca D Luis Fernandes de Vasconcelos Close to ilha de São Lourenço March 17, 1559 Unknown
1557 N Sra das Relíquias «Flamenga» Antónia Mendes de Castro São Tomé? August 20, 1560 Unknown
1557 Águia Francisco Barreto Mombaça August 20, 1561 Poor condition of ship
1558 N Sra da Graça João Rodrigues Salema de Carvalho Between Terra do natal and Cape of Good Hope November 24, 1559 Storm
1560 São Paulo Rui de Melo da Câmara Sumatra Island January 22, 1561 Storm
1562 São Martinho D. Jorge Manuel Unknown 1563 Unknown
1562 Cedro D Rodrigo (or Pedro) de Castro Unknown 1563 Unknown
1563 N Sra da Graça Diogo Lopes da Lima Cape of Good Hope? March 15, 1565 Unknown
1563 São Filipe Vasco Lourenço de Barbuda Barra de Goa September 1563 Storm
1564 Flor de la Mar Damião de Sousa Mozambique 1556 Poor condition of ship
1565 Tigre Bartolomeu de Vasconcelos de Sousa Mozambique May 16, 1566 Poor navigation
1572 São Francisco Pedro Leitão de Gamboa Unknown April 23, 1573 Unknown
1573 Santa Clara Luís de Alter Brazil 1575? Unknown
1576 São Jorge Balthazar Pessanha Entry of the barra of Mozambique 1576 Poor navigation?
1577 São Pedro Manuel de Medeiros Baixos das Chagas or Pero dos Banhos 1578? Poor navigation?
1577 São João Miguel de Arnide (or Arruda) Baixos of Pero dos Banhos 1578? Poor navigation
1581 São Pedro Leonel de Lima Parcel de Sofala 1583 Poor condition of ship
1582 São Luís Luís Caldera Rio de Quelimane/Parcel de Sofala 1582 Poor navigation
1584 Boa Viagem Lourenço Soares de Melo Unknown 1585 Overloaded
1585 Santiago Fernão de Mendonça Baixos da Judia August 19-25, 1585 Poor navigation
1585 São Lourenço Fernão (or Reimão) Falcão Mozambique 1586 Incapable to navigate
1586 Reis Magos João Gago de Andrade São Tomé 1588? Overloaded
1586 Bom Jesus «Caranja» António Gomes de Goes India End 1586? Wrecked
1586 São Salvador Miguel de Abreu Ormuz 1587 Poor condition of ship
1586 N Sra das Relíquias Francisco Carvalho (or Cavaleiro) Barra de Goa January 5, 1587 Overloaded
1586 São Filipe João Trigueiros Close to the Azores June 8, 1587 Captured by Francis Drake
1587 Santiago Francisco de Brio Lobato Terceira Island August 14, 1588 Poor navigation
1588 São Tomé Estevão de Veiga Terra do Natal March 17, 1589 Poor condition of ship
1589 Santo António D João da Cunha Between Mozambique and India 1589 Unknown
1590 Bom Jesus Manuel de Sousa Coutinho Baixos de Garajau End of February, 1592 Overloaded?
1590 São Lucas Rui Gomes da Grã Close to the Canary Islands or Madeira End 1590 Unknown
1590 Espírito Santo Diogo Pereira In sight of Lisbon October 28, 1590 Taken by the English
1591 São Bernardo (or Bartolomeu?) Simão Vaz Telo Unknown March 10, 1592 Overloaded
1591 Madre de Deus Fernão de Mendonça Furtado Close to the Azores August 15 or 19, 1592 Taken by the English
1591 Santa Cruz António Teixeira de Macedo Close to the Azores July 9, 1592 Burned to escape from the English
1591 São Luís Diogo Nunes Gramaxo Mozambique 1592/1593? Poor condition of ship
1592 Santo Alberto Julião de faria Cerveira Penedo das Fontes, on the coast of Terra do Natal March 26, 1593 Poor condition and overloading
1592 N Sra da Nazaré Braz Correia Mozambique July 15, 1593 Storm and overloading
1593 Chagas Francisco de Melo Close to Faial Island June 22, 1594 Overloading and enemy attack
1593 São Bartolomeu Lopo de Pina de Azavedo Unknown April 15, 1595 Unknown
1593 São Cristovão António Teixeira de Macedo Between Mozambique and Goa August 17, 1594 Poor condition
1593 São Pedro Pedro Gonçalves Pernambuco August 4, 1594 Bad weather
1594 São Paulo Sebastião Gonçalves de Arvelos Unknown April 15, 1595 Overloaded?
1595 Madre de Deus António Teixeira de Macedo Cabo das Baixas End of January 1595 Unknown
1595 N Sra da Luz João de Saldanha Unknown End February 1596 Overloading
1595 N Sra da Victória João Rodrigues Carreiro (or Correia) Mozambique 1596 Overloading
1595 N Sra do Rosário Gaspar Palha Lobo Mozambique April 8, 1597 Overloading
1596 S Sra de Guadaloupe (or Madre de Deus) D Luís da Gama Barra de Cochim January 6, 1598 Burned before leaving
1596 São Francisco Vasco Borges da Fonseca Azores (São Miguel?) November 17, 1597 Wrecked on the coast, burned, escaping the English
1599 N Sra do Castelo Simão de Mendonça Parcel de Sofala 1599 Wrecked
1600 São Filipe Gaspar Palha Lobo Vale das Éguas (Canary Islands) 1600 Unknown
1600 São Valentim D Julião (or João) de Noronha Close to Sesimbra June (or July) 8, 1602 Taken by the English
1600 São João Gonçalo Rodrigues Caldeira Between Chaul and Goa End 1600 Taken and burnt by the Dutch
1601 Santo António Manuel Paes da Veiga Socotorá End 1601 Unknown
1601 Santiago António de Melo Castro Island of Santa Helena March 16, 1602 Taken by the Dutch
1604 São Filipe António de Mendonça Angoxa (Cafraria coast) 1604 Unknown
1604 São Jacinto Pedro da Silva Terceira Island 1607 or 1608 Unable to navigate
1605 São Salvador Álvaro de Carvalho Malaca 1606? Burned after struggle with the Dutch
1605 N Sra de Betancor Braz Teles de Menezes Goa 1606 Lost
1605 N Sra da Salvação D João de Meneses Barra of Lisbon September 13, 1606 Ran aground on the coast
1605 N Sra dos Mártires Manuel Barreto Rolim Next to São Juliãp tower September 15, 1606 Unknown
1607 São Francisco Francisco de Lima Mozambique September 1, 1607 Unknown
1607 N Sra do Loreto Jerónimo Teles de Albuquerque Ilhéus Queimados (Goa) October 20, 1607 Taken and burnt by the Dutch
1607 N Sra da Consolação Diogo de Sousa Mozambique July 25, 1608 Burnt to escape the Dutch
1607 Santo André Luís de Brito de Melo Barra de Goa May 27, 1608 Unknown
1608 N Sra da Ajuda Miguel Correia Baharem Costa da Mina June 13, 1608 Bad navigation
1608 N Sra da Salvação D Luís de Sousa Mombaça April 17, 1609 Unknown
1608 N Sra da Oliveira Pedro de Tovar Caminha Close to Goa 1608? Burnt to escape the Dutch
1608 N Sra da Palma Cristovão de Sequeira de Alvarenga Baixos de Moxincale (Angoxa) December 15, 1608 Unknown
1608 São Bartolomeu D Lopo de Almeida Ceilão 1610? Unknown
1608 Bom Jesus Francisco Sodré Pereira Mozambique August 17, 1608 Taken by the Dutch
1608 Santo António Diogo de Sousa de Meneses Cabo Comorim 1610? Unknown
1608 Espírito Santo D Constantino de Meneses Terra do Natal February 4, 1609 Unknown
1609 Bom Jesus António Barroso Baía August 11 or 16, 1610 Unknown
1610 N Sra do Livramento Manuel Teles de Távora Leaving Lisbon March 23, 1610 Unknown
1613 N Sra da Luz Pedro Rodrigues Manila 1614? Unknown
1613 N Sra da Nazaré Luís Massane Surrate 1615 Burned after struggle with the English
1614 N Sra de Guadalupe João Soares Henriques Melinde coast October 31, 1614 Unknown
1614 N Sra da Conceição Francisco de Sousa Pereira Coast of Brazil (Cape of Santo Agostinho) May 1, 1614 Poor navigation
1614 N Sra dos Remédios Paulo Rangel de Castelo Branco Barra de Goa January 28, 1616 Storm
1614 N Sra da Luz D Manuel Coutinho Faial Island April 7, 1615 Unknown
1614 São Boaventura Manuel de Almada Freira (or Nuno Cunha?) Maldives Islands March 22, 1615 Sprung a leak
1616 São Julião D Manuel de Meneses Comoro islands August 18, 1616 Burned after struggle with the English
1619 N Sra do Pópulo Francisco de Melo Close to the Querimbas Islands 1619 Unknown
1619 N Sra da Guia Jerónimo Correia Peixoto Goa End 1620? Unable to navigate
1620 Santo Amaro Pedro de Moraes Sarmento Barra de Mombaça December 10, 1620 Unknown
1620 São João Evangelista José Pinto perreira Close to Mombasa (Luabo river?) 1620 Unknown
1620 N Sra da Conceição Filipe da Cruz da Silveira An island close to Malaca 1620? Unknown
1621 N Sra da Conceição Jerónimo Correia Peixoto Ericeira October 11 or 13, 1621 Burned by the Turks
1621 São João Baptista Pedro de Moraes Sarmento West coast of Africa September 29, 1622 Battle with the Dutch, ran aground on the coast after storm
1622 Santa Teresa de Jesus D Filipe Lobo Entry of the barra of Mozambique July 25, 1622 Stranded after struggle with the English
1622 São José D Francisco de Mascaranhas Baixos de Moxincale July 25, 1622 Stranded after struggle with the Dutch
1622 São Carlos D Francisco Lobo Mozambique July 25, 1622 Stranded after struggle with the Dutch
1623 Santa Isabel D Diogo de Castelo Branco/D João Coutinho Mozambique January 28, 1624 Storm while overwintering
1623 São Simão Bento de Freitas Mascarenhas Mozambique January 28, 1624 Storm while overwintering
1623 São Braz Cosme de Brito Mozambique January 28, 1624 Storm while overwintering
1623 N Sra da Guia Manuel Pessoa de Carvalho Between Mozambique and Mascate 1623/24? Poor navigation
1623 São Francisco Xavier D António Telo de Meneses At the entry of the Barra of Lisbon October 23, 1625 Poor navigation?
1623 Conceição D Francisco de Sá Santa Helena July 24 or October 31, 1625 Storm, close to Cape of Good Hope
1624 Conceição Francisco Tovar da Cunha Santa Helena 1625 Storm
1625 Santa Helena João Henrique de Ayala Close to Baiona January 9, 1627 Storm
1625 São Bartolomeu Vicente de Brito de Meneses Close to Baiona January 12, 1627 Storm
1627 N Sra da Guia Lourenço Mousinho Leaving Pernambuco October 31, 1628 Taken by the Dutch
1629 Santiago Francisco de Sousa de Castro Baixos of João da Nova August 1629 Unknown
1629 Santo Estevão Vicente Leite de Quadros Close to the Angolan coast 1629 Sprung a leak
1629 N Sra da Guia Roque Borges Rio Tejo April 3, 1629 Fire
1629 São Gonçalo Fernão Lobo de Meneses Baía Formosa (close to the Cape of Good Hope) August 3, 1630 Sunk while in the Baia
1630 Santo Inácio de Loiola António de Sousa Carvalho Entry of the Tagus river April 1, 1633 Bad condition of the ship
1631 N Sra da Nazaré e Santo António Cosme Luís Madeira Island 1633 Storm
1633 N Sra de Belem José de Cabreira Terra do Natal June 16, 1635 Fire
1633 Santo António João da Costa 36 1/2 º ? May 16, 1634 Fire
1635 N Sra da Saúde António Teles de Meneses Málaga December 14, 1636 Storm
1635 Santa Catarina de Ribamar Luís de Castanhedes de Vasconcelos At the entry of the Barra of Lisbon November 2, 1636 Unknown
1635 N Sra da Conceição João da Costa Rio das Maçãs December 17, 1637 Burned by the Moors
1636 São João de Deus Gonçalo de Barros da Silva Barra de Goa March 1, 1638 Fire
1641 N Sra da Quietação Sancho de Faria da Silva Close to Goa September 22, 1641 Taken by the Dutch
1642 São Bento D João da Gama Mozambique December 27, 1642 Unknown
1644 Santo António Amador Lousado Ilha do Fogo (Angoxa) August 25, 1644 Unknown
1644 Santo André Gaspar Pereira dos Reis Galiza 1650 Taken prisoner by the Spanish
1646 N Sra da Atalaia António da Câmara de Noronha Close to Cape of Good Hope July 5, 1647 Storm and poor condition of the ship
1647 Santo Milagre Miguel Jorge Close to Mozambique 1647? Unknown
1647 Bom Jesus de Bouças Matias Figueira Close to Cape of Good Hope 1647 Unknown
1647 N Sra da Nazaré António de Fonseca de Meneses Close to Cape of Good Hope 1647 Unknown
1649 São Lourenço Diogo Leite Pereira Baixos de Moxincale September 3, 1649 Poor navigation
1649 N Sra do Bom Sucesso Vasco de Azevedo Coutinho Mozambique 1649? Unknown
1650 São João Evangelista João da Costa Goa 1652 or 1653? Unknown
1650 São Francisco Luís Dultra Corte Real Areal de Penafirme August 28, 1650 Unknown
1653 N Sra da Penha de França Pedro (or Lourenço) Botelho Close to Pernambuco 1653 Taken by the Dutch
1654 Santa Helena Manuel de Pina da Cunha Barra de Goa 1654/55? Unknown
1657 N Sra da Boa Memória Veríssimo Pereira Correia Faial Island 1660 Unknown
1658 Bom Jesus de São Domingos D Jerónimo Manuel India 1660 Burned to escape from the Dutch
1660 N Sra da Estrela Manuel Botelho do Amaral São Lourenço Island 1660 Unknown
1660 Conceição Agostinho Rodrigues Mozambique 1660? Unknown
1661 N Sra da Salvação Ãgostinho Freire Guerra Mozambique 1661? Unknown
1670 N Sra dos Remédios Simão de Sousa Távora Mombasa or Mozambique 1670? Unknown
1681 N Sra dos Milagres Manuel dos Santos Pinto Unknown 1696 Unknown
1686 São Francisco Xavier Domingos Luís de Oliveira Mascarenhas Island 1687 Unknown
1691 Sacramento Bento Ferreira de Almeida Between Baçaim and Goa September 1692 Storm
1694 N Sra da Nazaré e Santo António António Francisco Mingale, before Cabo Delgado 1695 Unknown
1698 N Sra das Necessidades (e Santo António) João da Silva Manuel Unknown 1699? Unknown


1. Guinote, P., Frutuoso, E., and Lopes, A., Naufragios e Outras Perdas da Carreira da India, Lisboa: Ed. Grupo de Trabalho do Ministerio da Educacao para as Comemoracoes dos Descobrimentos, 1998.

Portuguese Shipwreck Accounts and Documents

Cover of the 18th-Century edition of História Trágico-Marítima.

Shipwreck accounts have fascinated people probably ever since their were shipwrecks. In Portugal a number of accounts of voyages and shipwrecks of Indiamen from the Carreira da India have been edited since at least the 1550s, and survive to these days. This form of literary fiction is imensely important for nautical archaeologists for a number of obvious reasons that stretch from the mere references to life aboard to the complex problems of identification of a particular shipwreck. Some of these accounts are widely known and have been translated into several languages. The best known have been bundled into a collection by Bernardo Gomes de Brito in 1735-36, under the title História Trágico-Marítima.

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