Itinerario de Navegacion de los Mares y Tierras Occidentals (1575)
This treatise was written by Juan Escalante de Mendoza in 1575 under the title Ytinerario de Navegación de los mares y tierras occidentales.
Born around 1530 in Valle de Riva de Deva in Santander, Mendoza served in the Spanish Carrera de las Indias from a young age, reaching the position of capitán general de la flota de la Nueva España in 1595, one year before his death in 1596, in the city of Nombre de Dios. His manuscript was much appreciated in the Consejo de las Indias, but never authorized for publication as it was found to contain too much information on the routes and secrets of New World navigation. It is composed of three books. The first book presents a description of navigation down the Guadalquivir river, from Seville to the oceanic port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda and its sandbar, followed by a treatise of naval architecture. The second describes the navigation from the mouth of the Guadalquivir to the Gulf of Vera Cruz, for the fleet of Nueva España, and the port of Nombre de Dios, for the fleet of Tierra Firme. It includes dialogues on nautical instruments, measurement of latitude and meteorology. The third describes the voyage back to Spain and includes several dialogues on diverse issues such as the compensation of the magnetic compass, the fires of San Telmo, seasickness, shipwrecks, privateers and other topics related to sea voyages.
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Mendoza, Juan Escalante de, Ytinerario de navegación de los mares y tierras occidentales, 1575, in Duro, Cesáreo Fernández, Disquisiciones náuticas (1880), 5 Vols., Madrid: Instituto de Historia y Cultura Naval, 1996, 5:413-515.
It is fully reproduced in facsimile in a CDRom edition by the Fundación Histórica Tavera.