Livro Primeiro de Arquitectura Naval (c. 1600)

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Revision as of 19:41, 18 January 2011


Contents

Background

The Livro Primeiro de Arquitectura Naval has been dated between 1608 and 1615, and is generally considered to have been written around 1600 by João Baptista Lavanha, the Chief Engineer and Chief Cosmographer of the kingdom of Portugal at that time.


João Baptista Lavanha

Lavanha was born in Lisbon around 1550, son of a court officer, and he enjoyed a successful career in spite of his Jewish origins.

He served as Master of Mathematics for four kings - Sebastian (1568-1578), Philip I (1581-1598), Philip II (1598-1621) and Philip III (1621-1640).

In 1586 he was appointed Engineer of Portugal and in 1591 Chief Cosmographer. In 1601 he visited Flanders. In 1607 and 1613 he sat on the commissions in charge of the standardization of the shipbuilding industry in Spain and Portugal, which issued the Ordenanzas of 1607 and 1613. Between 1610 and 1615 he worked on a map of Aragon, and in 1616 he worked on a system to supply water to Lisbon, a city constantly plagued by the scarcity of fresh water. In that same year he was appointed Chief Chronicler.

A friend of Cervantes and Lope de Vega, Lavanha died in 1624 after publishing many volumes, among which are a Description del Universo, written in Spanish, a Regimento Náutico, a Tratado da Arte de Navegar, a Tratado do Astrolábio, written in Portuguese, as well as a narrative of the shipwreck of the nau S. Alberto which was later included in the História Trágico-Marítima by Bernardo Gomes de Brito.

A facsimile was published in 1996 with a transcription and a translation into English.

The Treatise

It is the theoretical work of a scholar, and not the practical text of a shipwright. It deals only with one type of vessel: the four decked nau for the India Route. It is clearly more modern than Oliveira's Liuro da Fabrica das Naus, basing the construction of hulls on paper drawings. Nevertheless, Lavanha calls for the need to pre-design a central portion of the hull, although only for five frames forward and abaft the midship section. The importance of this treatise lies in its accurate description of construction techniques, and in its detailed illustrations. It is incomplete, ending abruptly in the beginning of a description of the drawing of plans. 1


Table of Contents

Construction Feature Description Page
Quilha 1 unidade = Q

nau de 4 cobertas Q = 17 ½ rumos (105 palmos de goa)

um palmo de largo e tudo o mais de palmo que puderem ter de alto, para o alefriz

de sobro, mesmo que haja um pau inteiro p/ quilha e couces, deve-se fazer com paus menores, ligados com escarvas lavadas verticais pregadas com pregos anielados

c
Boca boca máxima a meia altura da 3ª coberta

1/3 do comp. de eslora à eslora (Esloria) Þ 162/3 = 54 pg

Esloria = Q + Roda + Cadaste + lançamento da 1ª abóbada (1/3 do Gio, q. é ½ da Largura)

= 105 + 35 + 12 + (1/3 x 27) = 162 [no livro 105 + 35 + 12 = 153!]

:36
Pontal suponho que seja o pontal da face superior da quilha à face superior do convés

é calculado somando as alturas do porão e cobertas com as grossuras das madeiras

Porão = 2Q/15 = 14 pg; Cobertas = Q/15 = 7 pg; Caverna = 1pg; Madeiras = 2/3 pg

1 + 14 + 2/3 + 7 + 2/3 + 7 + 2/3 + 7 + 2/3 = 37 2/3 pg

no Livro só se desenha até à Boca máx., i.e., 34 ½ pg

:36 e 37
Roda da mesma madeira e secção que a quilha (sobro)

lança 1/3 de Q = 52 ½ pg

levanta ½ de Q = 35 pg (mais o capelo: 35 + 8 ¾ = 43 ¾ pg)

é uma arco de círculo ñ tangente à quilha

tem um capelo de altura 1/6 x Q/2 = 8 ¾ pg

também é um arco de círculo ñ tg. à Roda

:26  :35
Cadaste da mesma madeira que a quilha (sobro)

levanta 2/5 Q = 42 pg

lança 2/7 da sua altura, i.e., 2/7 x 42 = 12 pg

da largura da Quilha, se fôr de de vários paus, escarvas horizontais

o alefriz muda para for a no painel de popa

:26:35  :38 e 46
Painel de popa Gio: ½ da largura máx. Þ 54/2 = 27 pg

Delgado da popa: ½ do lançamento da Roda Þ 52 ½ / 2 = 17 ½ pg

Revesados: 2 arc.círc. inscrevendo quadrados de lado = ½ (Cadaste - Delgado) = 12 ¼ pg secções do Cadaste e Revesados: 1 pg de altura e o mais q. puderem de largura

Revesados ligados por escarvas horizontais entre os Revesados e o Cadaste põem-se as Porcas, de 1 pg de altura, com orelhas p/ pregar nos Revesados e um encaixe para pregar no cadaste (podem ser de vários paus, c/ esc. vert.)

na base do Painel ficam 2 ou 3 Porcas maciças, formando o Porquete

sobre o gio arma-se uma grade de 7 pg de altura, 27 de base e 25 de topo:

a) a base é o Gio

b) a meia altura tem a Barra, de pinho manso, de secção U c/ 1pv de lado, curva, assentando nos lados da grade a 3 pg de altura e

com 4 pg de altura a maio vão

c) entre o Gio e a Barra põem-se 8 Barrotes verticais, c/ a secção da Barra

d) o vão entre os dois Barrotes do meio chama-se Almeida

:38
41
47 a 49
Gio
Coral da roda
Coral do cadaste
Sobrequilha
Fundo
Cavernas mestras
Almogamas
Par
Compartida, alturas
Graminhos, alturas
Regel
Enchimento da proa
Compartida, fundo
Graminhos, fundo
Espalhamento
Graminhos, convés
Graminhos, Proa
Popa
Latas

(ou Vaus)

Cobertas
Grade (ou Ponte)
Pregadura
Costado
Sobrecostado
Cintas
Escoas e Dragas
Calafetagem
Obras mortas
Castelo da popa
Castelo da proa
Governalho
Obs.

References

1. Nautical Archaeology Digital Library

Lavanha, Livro primeiro de Architectura Naval, Fac-simile, transcription and translation into English, Lisboa: Academia de Marinha, 1996.

Domingues, Francisco Contente, "Documents on Portuguese Naval Architecture (late 16th-early 17th century). A general overview." in Alves, Francisco, ed., Proceedings of the International Symposium 'Archaeology of Medieval and Modern Ships of Iberian-Atlantic Tradition', Lisbon, September 1998. Lisbon, Portugal: IPA, 2001.

Domingues, Francisco Contente, Os navios do mar oceano, Lisbon, Centro de História dos Descobrimentos, 2004.


Further Readng

Link to NADL copy of Livro Primeiro de Arquitectura Naval (c. 1600)

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