Medieval Mediterranean

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Contents

Late Antiquity and the East-West split: from Diocletian to Theodosius (284-395 AD)

Cameron, A. The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity: 395-600. London: Routledge, 1993.
Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
Garnsey, P. and R. Saller. The Roman Empire. Economy, Society and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey. Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1964.
Landels, J.G. Engineering in the Ancient World. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978.
Treadgold, Warren, A Concise History of Byzantium. New York: Palgrave, 2001.


Madrague de Giens

Pomey, P. "Le navire romain de la Madrague de Giens."Paris: CRAI (1982): 133-154.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 147-239.
Tchernia, A., P. Pomey, and A. Hesnard. L'épave romaine de la Madrague de Giens (Var) (Campagnes 1972-1975). Gallia Supplement 24. Paris, 1978.

Pointe de la Luque B

Clerc, J.-P. and J.C. Negrel, “Prémiers resultats de la campagne de fouilles 1971 sur l’épave B de la Pointe de la Luque.” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 2 (1973): 61-71.
Liou, B. “Direction des recherches archéologiques sous-marines.” Gallia 31 (1973): 571-608.

The wreck at La Bourse de Marseilles

Gassend, J.-M. L’épave antique du Lacydon. Marseilles 1982.
Gassend, J.-M. and J.-P. Cuomo, “Un acquis recent des récherches d’architecture navale: la `construction alternée’ des navires antiques.” VI Congreso Internacional de Arqueologia Submarina, Cartagena 1982, pp. 343-350.
Gassend, J.-M. “La construction navale antique de type alterné: exemple d’un mode de construction.” Tropis I. H Tzalas (ed.) Proceedings from the 1st Symposium of Ship Construction in Antiquity. Piraeus: Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition, 1985, 115-127.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 245-265.

Yassiada 4th Century

Bass, G.F., and F.H. van Doorninck, Jr. “A 4th-century wreck at Yassi Ada,” AJA 75 (1971) 27-46.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The 4th-Century Wreck at Yassi Ada. An Interim Report on the Hull,” IJNA 5 (1976): 115-131.
van Doorninck, F.H., Jr. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-Century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.

Dramont F

Joncheray, J.-P. “Une épave du Bas Empire: Dramont F.” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 4 (1975): 91-140.

From Theodosius to Heraclius (379-641 AD). The merchant world in the Mediterranean.

Brunt, P. (ed). The Roman Economy. Oxford, 1974.
Garnsey, P., K. Hopkins, and C.R. Whittaker (eds.). Trade in the Ancient Economy. London: The Hogarth Press, 1983.
Greene, K. The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Treadgold, Warren A Concise History of Byzantium. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Port-Vendres I

Liou, B. “L’épave romaine de l’anse Gerbal à Port-Vendres.” Comptes rendus, Academie des Instriptions et Belles-Lettres (1974): 414-433.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 267-296.

Sebastos and Portus

Brandon, C. “The Concrete-Filled Barges of King Herod’s Harbor of Sebastos.” Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4). Atlanta, 1994, 45-58.
Holum, K., R. Hohlfelder, R.J. Bull and A. Raban. King Herod’s Dream: Caesarea on the Sea. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988.
Raban, A. The Harbours of Caesarea Maritima: Results of the Caesarea Ancient Harbour Excavation Project, 1980-1985 I: The Site and the Excavations. BAR International Series 491. Oxford, 1989.
Raban, A. “Sebastos: The Royal Harbor at Caesarea Maritima- a Short-Lived Giant,” IJNA 21 (1992) 111-124.
Testaguzza, O. Portus: Illustrazione dei porti di Claudio e Traiano e della citta’ di Porto a Fiumicino. Rome, 1970.

Laws concerning maritime trade, contracts, obligations, customs and harbor fees

Ashburner, W. “Sources of the Rhodian Sea Law,” in The Rhodian Sea Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909: 27-90.
Justinian, The Digest of Justinian. Philadelphia, 1985, 47.9, 14.1-14.2.
Justinian, The Digest of Roman Law. New York: Penguin Books, 1979: 7-10.
Goffart, W. Caput and Colonate: Towards a History of Late Roman Taxation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.

The Army’s needs. Canals. Road systems.

Campbell, B. The Roman Army 31 B.C.-A.D. 337: A Source Book. London: Routledge, 1994.
Coello, T. Unit Sizes in the Late Roman Field Army. BAR International Series 645, Oxford, 1996.
Cromwell, R. The Rise and Decline of the Late Roman Field Army. Shippensburg: White Mane Publishing Co. Inc., 1998.
Davies, R. Service in the Roman Army. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.
Peddie, J. The Roman War Machine. Gloucestershire: A. Sutton, 1994.
Southern, P. and K.R. Dixon. The Late Roman Army. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Treadgold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Urban demands. Bulk cargoes: grain, and building materials. Amphoras: Wine, oil, and fish sauce.

Bakirtzis, Ch. “Byzantine amphorae.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V.
Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 74-77.
Hass, C. Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Hayes, J. Late Roman Pottery. London: British School at Rome, 1972.
Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The origins of towns and trade A.D. 600-1000. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Joncheray, J.-P. Nouvelle classification des amphores decouvertes lors des fouilles sous-marines. Frejus, 1976.
Jones, A.H.M. Decline of the Ancient World. London: Longman Inc., 1966.
Liebeschuetz, J. Antioch: City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Manacorda, D. and C. Panella. “Anfore.” In The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in Light of “instrumentum domesticum, ed. W. Harris. Ann Arbor,: University of Michigan, 1993: 55-64.
Meigs, R. Roman Ostia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973 (2nd ed.).
Peacock, D.P.S. and D.F. Williams. Amphorae and the Roman economy: an introductory guide. London: Longman Inc., 1986.
Rickman, G. The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.
Sirks, A. Food for Rome. Amsterdam: J. C. Giegen, 1991.
Whittaker, C.R. Land, City and Trade in the Roman Empire. Brookfield, VT: Variorum Reprints, 1993.

Luxury cargoes

Miller, J.I. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969

The Skerki Bank wrecks - Isis

Ballard, R. D. and R. Archbold. The Lost Wreck of the Isis. New York: Madison Press Books, 1990.
Ballard, R., et. al. “The Discovery of Ancient History in the Deep Sea Using Advanced Deep Submerge Technology,” Deep-Sea Research I 47 (2000), 1591-1620.
McCann, A.M. and J. Freed. Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman Ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily (JRA Supplementary Series No. 13). Ann Arbor, MI: Oxbow Books, 1994.

Ship size

Parker, A.J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces. BAR International Series 580. Oxford: Hadrian Books, 1992.
Pomey, Patrice La navigation dans l’Antiquité.

Security in the seas. The Mediterranean in the 3rd-5th centuries. Notitia Dignitatum.

Rodgers, W.L. Greek and Roman Naval Warfare. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

Piracy. Roman biremes. Liburnians.

Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.
Hocker, F. “Late Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Galleys and Fleets,” in The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 86-100.
Hockmann, O. “The Liburnian: Some Observations and Insights,” IJNA 26 (1997) 192-216.
Panciera, S. “Liburna,” Epigraphica 18 (1956) 130-156.

The ancient-medieval transition and the competition for maritime dominance.

Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1969.
Treadgold, W. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Naval campaigns in the wars of Constantine.

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

The fleet of Anastasius.

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

Umayyad (661-750 AD) and Abbasid (750-1258 AD) Caliphates

Hourani, A. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Long, P.O. (Ed). Science and Technology in Medieval Society. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 441. New York, 1985.
Kennedy, Hugh The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. New York: Longman Inc., 1986.

Transition from shell to skeleton: Tantura A, Yassiada I and Saint Gervais II

Al-Hassan, A. Y., and D. R. Hill, Islamic Technology: an illustrated history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Bass, G. and F. van Doorninck, Yassi Ada: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1982.
Constable, O. R., Trade and Traders in Muslim Spain: The Commercial Realignment of the Iberian Peninsula, 900-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Steffy, J.R. Wooden Shipbuilding and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994, pp. 79-85.

The Bozburun shipwreck.

Hocker, F.M. and M.P. Scafuri. “The Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation: 1996 Campaign,” INA Quarterly 23.4 (1996) 3-9.
Harpster, M. The Bozburun Hull. Paper presented at Tropis VII, Pylos, 1999.
Hocker, F.M. “Cargo Stowage, Jettison and Wreck Formation Process: Information on Middle Byzantine Commerce from the Ninth Century Bozburun Shipwreck,” Archeologia delle Acque 1.2 1999) 28-38.

Serçe Limanı and Tantura F shipbuilding

Bass, G.F. and van Doorninck, F.H. “An 11th Century Shipwreck at Serçe Limanı, Turkey,” IJNA 7 (1978) 119-132.
Runnels, C. “The Rotary Querns,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 30-31.
Steffy, J.R. Wooden Shipbuilding and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994, pp. 85-91.
Kahanov, Y. and J.G. Royal. “The 1995 INA/CMS Tantura A Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation – Hull Construction Report,” C.M.S. News 23 (December 1996) 21-23.

The “Saracen” wrecks: Estéou, Agay A and B, Batéguier. Tantura B shipwreck

Darmoul, A. “Les épaves sarrasines. Contribution à l’étude des techniques de construction navales musulmanes et méditerranéenes,” in L’Homme Méditerranéen la Mer. M. Galley and L. :Ladjimi Sebai, eds. Tunis, 1985, pp. 152-165.
Jézégou, Marie-Pierre, et al., “Les épaves sarrasines d’Agay et de Cannes” Archeologia (1997), 337:32-39.
Joncheray, J.P. “Researches off Saint Raphaël and Cannes, 1973”, IJNA 3 (1974) 327-328.
Joncheray, J.P. “1974 Excavations at the Wrecks of Bataiguier (Early Middle Ages) and Bon Porté,” IJNA 5 (1976) 87-89.
Kahanov, Y. and S. Breitstein. “A Preliminary Study of the Hull Remains,” INA Quarterly 22.2 (1995) 9-13.
Kahanov, Y. and S. Breitstein. “Tantura Excavation 1994: A Preliminary Report on the Wood,” C.M.S. News 22 (August 1995).
Wachsmann, S. “Technology Before its Time: A Byzantine Shipwreck from Tantura Lagoon,” The Explorers Journal 74/1 (1996) 19-23.
Wachsmann, S. and Y. Kahanov. “Shipwreck Fall: the INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon, Israel,” INA Quarterly 24.4 (1997) 3-18.
Wachsmann, S., Y. Kahanov, and J. Hall. “The Tantura B Shipwreck: The 1996 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon,” INA Quarterly 24.4 (1997) 3-15.
Wachsmann, S. and K. Raveh “A Concise Nautical History of Dor/Tantura,” IJNA 13 (1984) 223-241.

East and West. The Arab Mediterranean during the Abbasid period (AD 750-1258).

Hourani, A. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
R. Tomber, “Quantitative approaches to the investigation of long-distance exchange.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 6 (1993): 142-148.

Iconographic evidence and rigs. Lateen rigging.

Basch, Lucien “L’apparition de la voile latine en mediterranée,” Techniques et économie antiques et médiévales: le temps de l’innovation. Colloque international (C.N.R.S.) Meeks, Dimitri and Garcia, Dominique (Eds.), Paris: Editions Errance, 1997.
Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton Unversity Press, 1973.
Casson, L. “Origins of the Lateen,” American Neptune 31 (1071) pp. 49-51.
Dimmock, L. “The Lateen Rig,” Mariner’s Mirror 32 (1946) pp. 35-41.
Hocker, F. “Late Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Galleys and Fleets,” in The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995: 86-100.
Hourani, G. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and Medieval Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986 (revised ed.)
Lane, F.C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992 (reprint of 1934 ed.)
Pryor, J.H. “From Dromon to Galea: Mediterranean Bireme Galleys AD 500- 1300,” in Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995: 101-116.
Pryor, J.H “The Mediterranean Round Ship,” in Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, R. Gardiner, (ed). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1994: 59-76.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “Byzantium, Mistress of the Sea: 330-641,” in A History of Seafaring, G.F. Bass, (ed.) London: Thames and Hudson, 1972, pp. 133-158.


Military and civilian supply and demand.

Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Brubaker, L., ed. Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive? New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999
Collins, R. Early Medieval Europe 300-1000. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1999.
Haldon, J. State, Army and Society in Byzantium. Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995.
Kaegi, Jr., W. Army, Society and Religion in Byzantium. London: Variorum Reprints, 1982.
Miller, T. and J. Nesbit, eds. Peace and War in Byzantium. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1995.
Rostovzeff, M. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
TreadGold, W. The Byzantine Revival 780-842. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 1988.
TreadGold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Dolley, R. “The Warships of the Later Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948) 47-53.

Government intervention/involvement in maritime exchange. The role of the Church

Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine Church.

The Mediterranean World in the 8th and 9th centuries. Western Europe. Eastern Europe. Northern Europe. The Muslim world.

Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Procopius. History of the Wars III-IV (the Vandal and Gothic wars).

Dromons and the re-emergence of “naval policy”

Dolley, R. “The Warships of the Later Roman Empire.” Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948): 47-53.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D.. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Naval Organization in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century AD. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Procopius. History of the Wars III-IV (the Vandal and Gothic wars).
Pryor, J.H. “From Byzantine dromon to medieval galley,” in Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995.
Treadgold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Alertz, U. “Ein Graffito aus Malaga-ein Dromon Leos VI?” Das Logbuch 31 (1995) 60-66.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “Did 10th Century Dromons have a Waterline Ram? Another Look at Leo, Tactica, XIX, 69,” Mariner’s Mirror 79 (1993) 387-392.
Harpster, M. Shipbuilding and Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean During the 7th Century: Possible Effects of the Muslim Invasion. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of St. Andrews, 1997.

The themal system of defense

Dain, A., ed. Naumachica. Paris, 1943. (F. Van Doorninck, trans.)
Jenkins, R. Byzantium, the Imperial Centuries AD 610-1071. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966.
Lewis, A.R. and T.J. Runyan. European Naval and Maritime History 300-1500. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
Lewis, A.R. Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean AD 500-1100. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951.
Miles, G.C. “Byzantium and the Arabs: Relations in Crete and the Aegean Area,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 3-32.
Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1956.
Toynbee A. Constantine Porpyrogenitus and his World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Greek Fire

Casson, L. Ships and seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1970.
Partington, J.R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999
Rodgers, W. Naval Warfare Under Oars: 4th to 16th Centuries. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982.
Turtledove, H. (trans.) The Chronicle of Theophanes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.


Leo’s Tactica

Gardiner, R., ed. The Age of the Galley. London, 1995.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D.. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Gardiner, R., (ed). The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
Partington, J.R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999
Turtledove, H. (trans.) The Chronicle of Theophanes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.
Leo’s Tactica; Book XIX of the Tactica of Leo VI (886-912).

====Who were the seafarers - personal possessions from shipwrecks. Life aboard in the year 1000'.

Bass, G. and F. van Doornink, Yassi Ada: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 1982.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The 4th-century wreck at Yassi Ada. An interim report on the hull,” IJNA 5 (1976): 115-131.
F.H. van Doorninck, Jr. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-Century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine

amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.

The cargo of the Serçe Limani ship.

Bass, G.F. “Glass treasure from the Aegean,” National Geographic Magazine 153.6 (1978) 768-793.
Bass, G.F. “The Nature of the Serçe Limani Glass,” Journal of Glass Studies 26 (1984) 64-69.
Bass, G.F. “The Serçe Limani Glass,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 10-13.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Amphoras: Old Jars from the North,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 22-23.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Cargo: Diverse and Partly Unknown,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 4-9.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Serçe Limani Shipwreck: An 11th-Century Cargo of Fatimid Glassware Cullet for Byzantine Glassmakers,” in 1st International Anatolian Glass Symposium: April 6th-27th, 1988. Istanbul:, 1990, pp. 58-63.


The cargo of the Saracen wrecks.

Arnaud, G., A. Ascenzi, E. Bonucci, and G. Graziani. “On the Problem of the Preservation of Human Bone in Sea Water,” IJNA 9 (1980) 53-65.
Jézégou, Marie-Pierre, et al., “Les épaves sarrasines d’Agay et de Cannes” Archeologia (1997), 337:32-39.
Joncheray, J.P. “Researches off Saint Raphaël and Cannes, 1973”, INJA 3 (1974) 327-328.
Joncheray, J.P. “1974 Excavations at the Wrecks of Bataiguier (Early Middle Ages) and Bon Porté,” INJA 5 (1976) 87-89.
Visquis, A.G. “Premier inventaire du mobilier de l’épave des jarres à Agay,” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 2 (1973) 157-166.
Ximenes, Serge, "Etude preliminaire de l’épave sarrasine du rocher de l’Estéou,” Cahiers de Archéologie Subaquatique 5 (1976) 139-150.

The Mediterranean World in the 10th and 11th centuries. Western Europe. Eastern Europe. Northern Europe. The Muslim world.

Lewis, Archibald Ross, Medieval Society in Southern France and Catalonia. London: Variorum Reprints, 1984.
McEvedy, Colin, The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. London: Penguin Books, 1992
Meiggs, R., Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
Thirgood, J. V., Man and the Mediterranean Forest: A history of resource depletion. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

From the desert to the sea: navigation and navigational instruments

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill, Islamic Technology, Cambridge, 1986 Ferrand, Gabriel Introduction a l’astronomie nautique arabe, Frankfurt and Main: Institut fur der Arabich-Islamischen Wissenschaften an der Johann Geothe- Universitat, 1986. Gies, Frances and Joseph Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel subtitled "Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages". HarperPerennial, 1995. Gille, Bertrand Machines in A History of Technology edited by Charles Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall, and Trevor I. Williams, Volume II, The Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages c. 700 B.C. to c. A. D. 1500. Oxford, 1956. Holmes, Urban Tigner Daily Living in the Twelfth Century subtitled "Based on the Observations of Alexander Neckham in London and Paris", Wisconsin, 1952. 41. Atlantic islands, monsters, and magnets in the bottom of the sea. Penrose, Boies,

Shipbuilding in Venice: Naval Architecture

Anderson R.C. "Italian Naval Architecture about 1445," MM 11 (1925) 135-154.

Anderson R.C. Oared Fighting Ships 52-60.

Chiggiato Alvise, "Le Ragioni Antique," Dell'Architettura Navale 57-79.

Lane F.C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance 88-99.

Lane F.C."Naval Architecture about 1550," Venice and History 163- 188.

Naval Weapons other than Cannon: Individual Weaponry

Guilmartin, J.F. Gunpowder and Galleys 135-157 and appendix I.

Lane, F.C. "The crossbow in the Nautical revolution of the Middle Ages" Economy, Society, and Government in Medieval Italy.

Cargo, Freight Rates, and Shipping Contracts

Dotson, J.E. "Tonnage, Medieval and Modern" The Economic History Review 17 (1964) 213-233.

Dotson, J. Freight Rates

Byrne, E.H. Genoese Shipping

Sea Loans

Hoover, C.B. "The Sea loan in Genoa in the twelfth century" Quarterly Journal of Economics 40 (1925-1926) 495-529.

Pryor, J.H. "The origins of the Commenda contract" Speculum 52 (1977) 5-13.

de Roover, F.E. "Partnership accounts in twelfth-century Genoa" Bulletin of Business Historical Society 15 (1941) 87-92.

de Roover, R. "The Cambium Maritimum contract..." Government in Medieval Italy 15-33.

Late Medieval Italian Wrecks

Bonino, M. "Lateen-rigged medieval ships. New evidence from wrecks in the Po Delta (Italy) and notes on pictorial and other documents" IJNA 7 (1) 1978: 9-28.

The Development of the Rudder

Mott, L.V. The Development of the Rudder, 100-1600 A.D.: A Technological Tale

Sleeswyk, A.W. "Pintle and Gudgeon and the development of the Rudder: Two traditions" MM 68 (1982) 279-303.

Byzantine Warships: The Ships and Crews

Dolly, R. "The Warships of the later Roman Empire" Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948) 47-53.

Eickhoff, E. Seekrieg und Seepolitick

Dain, A. Naumachia (With Van Doorninck translation)

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