Medieval Mediterranean

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Contents

History

Late Antiquity and the East-West split: from Diocletian to Theodosius (284-395 AD)

Cameron, A. The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity: 395-600. London: Routledge, 1993.
Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
Garnsey, P. and R. Saller. The Roman Empire. Economy, Society and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey. Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1964.
Landels, J.G. Engineering in the Ancient World. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1978.
Treadgold, Warren, A Concise History of Byzantium. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

From Theodosius to Heraclius (379-641 AD). The merchant world in the Mediterranean.

Brunt, P. (ed). The Roman Economy. Oxford, 1974.
Garnsey, P., K. Hopkins, and C.R. Whittaker (eds.). Trade in the Ancient Economy. London: The Hogarth Press, 1983.
Greene, K. The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
Treadgold, Warren A Concise History of Byzantium. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Umayyad (661-750 AD) and Abbasid (750-1258 AD) Caliphates

Hourani, A. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Long, P.O. (Ed). Science and Technology in Medieval Society. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 441. New York, 1985.
Kennedy, Hugh The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. New York: Longman Inc., 1986.

East and West. The Arab Mediterranean during the Abbasid period (AD 750-1258).

Hourani, A. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
R. Tomber, “Quantitative approaches to the investigation of long-distance exchange.” Journal of Roman Archaeology 6 (1993): 142-148.

The Mediterranean World in the 8th and 9th centuries. Western Europe. Eastern Europe. Northern Europe. The Muslim world.

Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Procopius. History of the Wars III-IV (the Vandal and Gothic wars).

The Mediterranean World in the 10th and 11th centuries. Western Europe. Eastern Europe. Northern Europe. The Muslim world.

Lewis, Archibald Ross, Medieval Society in Southern France and Catalonia. London: Variorum Reprints, 1984.
McEvedy, Colin, The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. London: Penguin Books, 1992
Meiggs, R., Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
Thirgood, J. V., Man and the Mediterranean Forest: A history of resource depletion. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Ship Related

Madrague de Giens

Pomey, P. "Le navire romain de la Madrague de Giens."Paris: CRAI (1982): 133-154.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 147-239.
Tchernia, A., P. Pomey, and A. Hesnard. L'épave romaine de la Madrague de Giens (Var) (Campagnes 1972-1975). Gallia Supplement 24. Paris, 1978.

Pointe de la Luque B

Clerc, J.-P. and J.C. Negrel, “Prémiers resultats de la campagne de fouilles 1971 sur l’épave B de la Pointe de la Luque.” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 2 (1973): 61-71.
Liou, B. “Direction des recherches archéologiques sous-marines.” Gallia 31 (1973): 571-608.

The wreck at La Bourse de Marseilles

Gassend, J.-M. L’épave antique du Lacydon. Marseilles 1982.
Gassend, J.-M. and J.-P. Cuomo, “Un acquis recent des récherches d’architecture navale: la `construction alternée’ des navires antiques.” VI Congreso Internacional de Arqueologia Submarina, Cartagena 1982, pp. 343-350.
Gassend, J.-M. “La construction navale antique de type alterné: exemple d’un mode de construction.” Tropis I. H Tzalas (ed.) Proceedings from the 1st Symposium of Ship Construction in Antiquity. Piraeus: Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition, 1985, 115-127.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 245-265.

Yassiada 4th Century

Bass, G.F., and F.H. van Doorninck, Jr. “A 4th-century wreck at Yassi Ada,” AJA 75 (1971) 27-46.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The 4th-Century Wreck at Yassi Ada. An Interim Report on the Hull,” IJNA 5 (1976): 115-131.
van Doorninck, F.H., Jr. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-Century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.

Dramont F

Joncheray, J.-P. “Une épave du Bas Empire: Dramont F.” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 4 (1975): 91-140.

Port-Vendres I

Liou, B. “L’épave romaine de l’anse Gerbal à Port-Vendres.” Comptes rendus, Academie des Instriptions et Belles-Lettres (1974): 414-433.
Rival, M. La charpenterie naval romaine: Materiaux, Methods, Moyans. Paris: CNRS, 1991, 267-296.

The Skerki Bank wrecks - Isis

Ballard, R. D. and R. Archbold. The Lost Wreck of the Isis. New York: Madison Press Books, 1990.
Ballard, R., et. al. “The Discovery of Ancient History in the Deep Sea Using Advanced Deep Submerge Technology,” Deep-Sea Research I 47 (2000), 1591-1620.
McCann, A.M. and J. Freed. Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman Ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily (JRA Supplementary Series No. 13). Ann Arbor, MI: Oxbow Books, 1994.

Anse Saint Gevais 2

Bass, G.F. "A Byzantine Trading Venture" Scientific American(1971).
Bass, G.F. Yassi Ada Volume 1 A Seventh-Century Byzantine Warship
Jezegou, M.P. "Elements de construction sur couples observes sur une epave du haut Moyen-age decouverte a Fos-sur-mer (Bouches- du rhone): Arqueologia Submarina(1982).
Liou, B. "Direction des recherches archeologiques sous-marines" Gallia (1975).

Ship size

Parker, A.J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces. BAR International Series 580. Oxford: Hadrian Books, 1992.
Pomey, Patrice La navigation dans l’Antiquité.

Transition from shell to skeleton: Tantura A, Yassiada I and Saint Gervais II

Al-Hassan, A. Y., and D. R. Hill, Islamic Technology: an illustrated history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Bass, G. and F. van Doorninck, Yassi Ada: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1982.
Constable, O. R., Trade and Traders in Muslim Spain: The Commercial Realignment of the Iberian Peninsula, 900-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Steffy, J.R. Wooden Shipbuilding and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994, pp. 79-85.

The Bozburun shipwreck.

Hocker, F.M. and M.P. Scafuri. “The Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation: 1996 Campaign,” INA Quarterly 23.4 (1996) 3-9.
Harpster, M. The Bozburun Hull. Paper presented at Tropis VII, Pylos, 1999.
Hocker, F.M. “Cargo Stowage, Jettison and Wreck Formation Process: Information on Middle Byzantine Commerce from the Ninth Century Bozburun Shipwreck,” Archeologia delle Acque 1.2 1999) 28-38.

Serçe Limanı and Tantura F shipbuilding

Bass, G.F. and van Doorninck, F.H. “An 11th Century Shipwreck at Serçe Limanı, Turkey,” IJNA 7 (1978) 119-132.
Runnels, C. “The Rotary Querns,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 30-31.
Steffy, J.R. Wooden Shipbuilding and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1994, pp. 85-91.
Kahanov, Y. and J.G. Royal. “The 1995 INA/CMS Tantura A Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation – Hull Construction Report,” C.M.S. News 23 (December 1996) 21-23.

The “Saracen” wrecks: Estéou, Agay A and B, Batéguier. Tantura B shipwreck

Darmoul, A. “Les épaves sarrasines. Contribution à l’étude des techniques de construction navales musulmanes et méditerranéenes,” in L’Homme Méditerranéen la Mer. M. Galley and L. :Ladjimi Sebai, eds. Tunis, 1985, pp. 152-165.
Jézégou, Marie-Pierre, et al., “Les épaves sarrasines d’Agay et de Cannes” Archeologia (1997), 337:32-39.
Joncheray, J.P. “Researches off Saint Raphaël and Cannes, 1973”, IJNA 3 (1974) 327-328.
Joncheray, J.P. “1974 Excavations at the Wrecks of Bataiguier (Early Middle Ages) and Bon Porté,” IJNA 5 (1976) 87-89.
Kahanov, Y. and S. Breitstein. “A Preliminary Study of the Hull Remains,” INA Quarterly 22.2 (1995) 9-13.
Kahanov, Y. and S. Breitstein. “Tantura Excavation 1994: A Preliminary Report on the Wood,” C.M.S. News 22 (August 1995).
Wachsmann, S. “Technology Before its Time: A Byzantine Shipwreck from Tantura Lagoon,” The Explorers Journal 74/1 (1996) 19-23.
Wachsmann, S. and Y. Kahanov. “Shipwreck Fall: the INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon, Israel,” INA Quarterly 24.4 (1997) 3-18.
Wachsmann, S., Y. Kahanov, and J. Hall. “The Tantura B Shipwreck: The 1996 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon,” INA Quarterly 24.4 (1997) 3-15.
Wachsmann, S. and K. Raveh “A Concise Nautical History of Dor/Tantura,” IJNA 13 (1984) 223-241.

Representations of Islamic Ships

Christides, B. "Some Remarks on the Mediterranean and Red Sea Ships in Ancient and Medieval Times: A Preliminary Report" Tropis I (1985) 75-82.
Nicolle, D. "Shipping in Islamic Art: Seventh Through Sixteenth Century A.D." The American Neptune 76.2 (1990): 99-113.
Pryor, J.H. "The Medieval Muslim Ships of the Pisan Bacini" MM 76.2 (1990): 99-113.

Iconographic evidence and rigs. Lateen rigging.

Basch, Lucien “L’apparition de la voile latine en mediterranée,” Techniques et économie antiques et médiévales: le temps de l’innovation. Colloque international (C.N.R.S.) Meeks, Dimitri and Garcia, Dominique (Eds.), Paris: Editions Errance, 1997.
Basch, L. "The way to the lateen sail" MM 75 (1989) 328-332.
Bowen R. Le Baron. MM 42 (1956) 239-243.
Bowen R. Le Baron. MM 43 (1956) 160-164.
Casson, L. "Fore-and-Aft Sails in the Ancient World" MM 42 (1956): 3-5.
Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton Unversity Press, 1973.
Casson, L. “Origins of the Lateen,” American Neptune 31 (1071) pp. 49-51.
Casson, L. "Studies in the ancient sails and rigging" American Studies in Papyrology 1 (1966) 43-51.
Casson, L. "Belisarius' Expedition against Carthage" Excavations at Carthage (1977) 23-28.
Casson, L. "Comment of 'The ship of bishop Synesius'" IJNA 15: 67-68; IJNA 16 (1987) 67.
Dimmock, L. “The Lateen Rig,” Mariner’s Mirror 32 (1946) pp. 35-41.
Guilleux la Roerie, L. MM 42 (1956) 238-239; MM 43 (1956) 329.
Hocker, F. “Late Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Galleys and Fleets,” in The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995: 86-100.
Hourani, G. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and Medieval Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986 (revised ed.)
Lane, F.C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992 (reprint of 1934 ed.)
Meijer, F.J. "The ship of bishop Synesius" IJNA 15 (1986) 67-68.
Pryor, J.H. “From Dromon to Galea: Mediterranean Bireme Galleys AD 500- 1300,” in Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995: 101-116.
Pryor, J.H “The Mediterranean Round Ship,” in Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, R. Gardiner, (ed). Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1994: 59-76.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “Byzantium, Mistress of the Sea: 330-641,” in A History of Seafaring, G.F. Bass, (ed.) London: Thames and Hudson, 1972, pp. 133-158.

Culip VI and Les Sorres X.

Nieto Prieto, Javier, and Xim Raurich, eds., Excavacions arqueològiques subaquàtiques a Cala Culip, I., Girona: Centre d’Investigacions Arquelògiques de Girona, 1989 (Hull construction: 317-328).
Reith, E. “L’épave du caborateur de Culip VI (Catalogne, Espagne),”Archaeonautica 14 1988: 205-212.
Palou, H., et. al. Excavacions Arqueològiques Subaquàtiques a Cala Culip 2, Culip IV. Monigrafies del Casc. 1. Girona: 1998.

From the desert to the sea: navigation and navigational instruments

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald R. Hill, Islamic Technology, Cambridge, 1986
Ferrand, Gabriel Introduction a l’astronomie nautique arabe, Frankfurt and Main: Institut fur der Arabich-Islamischen Wissenschaften an der Johann Geothe-Universitat, 1986.
Gies, Frances and Joseph Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel subtitled "Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages". HarperPerennial, 1995.
Gille, Bertrand "Machines" in A History of Technology edited by Charles Singer, E. J. Holmyard, A. R. Hall, and Trevor I. Williams, Volume II, The Mediterranean Civilizations and the Middle Ages c. 700 B.C. to c. A. D. 1500. Oxford, 1956.
Holmes, Urban Tigner Daily Living in the Twelfth Century subtitled "Based on the Observations of Alexander Neckham in London and Paris", Wisconsin, 1952.

Traveling in the Mediterranean.

Newton, Arthur Percival Travel and Travelers of the Middle Ages, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1967.
Adler,M. N., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Critical, Text, Translation and Commentary. New York: Phillip Feldheim Inc., 1907.
Ashtor, Eliyahu, Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.
Batuta, I., Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354. Translated and selected by H.A.R. Gibb. Edited by Sir E. Denison Ross and Eileen Power. New York: Robert M. McBride & Company, 1929.

The Development of the Rudder

Mott, L.V. The Development of the Rudder, 100-1600 A.D.: A Technological Tale
Sleeswyk, A.W. "Pintle and Gudgeon and the development of the Rudder: Two traditions" MM 68 (1982) 279-303.

A 12th-Century Wreck at Marsala, Sicily

Purpura, G. "Un relitto de eta normanna a Marsala" Bolletino d'arte ser. 6, 29 (1985) 129-136.

Harbours and Harbour Law

Sebastos and Portus

Brandon, C. “The Concrete-Filled Barges of King Herod’s Harbor of Sebastos.” Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4). Atlanta, 1994, 45-58.
Holum, K., R. Hohlfelder, R.J. Bull and A. Raban. King Herod’s Dream: Caesarea on the Sea. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988.
Raban, A. The Harbours of Caesarea Maritima: Results of the Caesarea Ancient Harbour Excavation Project, 1980-1985 I: The Site and the Excavations. BAR International Series 491. Oxford, 1989.
Raban, A. “Sebastos: The Royal Harbor at Caesarea Maritima- a Short-Lived Giant,” IJNA 21 (1992) 111-124.
Testaguzza, O. Portus: Illustrazione dei porti di Claudio e Traiano e della citta’ di Porto a Fiumicino. Rome, 1970.

Laws concerning maritime trade, contracts, obligations, customs and harbor fees

Ashburner, W. “Sources of the Rhodian Sea Law,” in The Rhodian Sea Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909: 27-90.
Justinian, The Digest of Justinian. Philadelphia, 1985, 47.9, 14.1-14.2.
Justinian, The Digest of Roman Law. New York: Penguin Books, 1979: 7-10.
Goffart, W. Caput and Colonate: Towards a History of Late Roman Taxation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.

Supply and Demand, Cargoes and Possessions

The Army’s needs. Canals. Road systems.

Campbell, B. The Roman Army 31 B.C.-A.D. 337: A Source Book. London: Routledge, 1994.
Coello, T. Unit Sizes in the Late Roman Field Army. BAR International Series 645, Oxford, 1996.
Cromwell, R. The Rise and Decline of the Late Roman Field Army. Shippensburg: White Mane Publishing Co. Inc., 1998.
Davies, R. Service in the Roman Army. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.
Peddie, J. The Roman War Machine. Gloucestershire: A. Sutton, 1994.
Southern, P. and K.R. Dixon. The Late Roman Army. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Treadgold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Urban demands. Bulk cargoes: grain, and building materials. Amphoras: Wine, oil, and fish sauce.

Bakirtzis, Ch. “Byzantine amphorae.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V.
Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 74-77.
Hass, C. Alexandria in Late Antiquity: Topography and Social Conflict. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Hayes, J. Late Roman Pottery. London: British School at Rome, 1972.
Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The origins of towns and trade A.D. 600-1000. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Joncheray, J.-P. Nouvelle classification des amphores decouvertes lors des fouilles sous-marines. Frejus, 1976.
Jones, A.H.M. Decline of the Ancient World. London: Longman Inc., 1966.
Liebeschuetz, J. Antioch: City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Manacorda, D. and C. Panella. “Anfore.” In The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in Light of “instrumentum domesticum, ed. W. Harris. Ann Arbor,: University of Michigan, 1993: 55-64.
Meigs, R. Roman Ostia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973 (2nd ed.).
Peacock, D.P.S. and D.F. Williams. Amphorae and the Roman economy: an introductory guide. London: Longman Inc., 1986.
Rickman, G. The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.
Sirks, A. Food for Rome. Amsterdam: J. C. Giegen, 1991.
Whittaker, C.R. Land, City and Trade in the Roman Empire. Brookfield, VT: Variorum Reprints, 1993.

Luxury cargoes

Miller, J.I. The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969

Military and civilian supply and demand.

Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.
Brubaker, L., ed. Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive? New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999
Collins, R. Early Medieval Europe 300-1000. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1999.
Haldon, J. State, Army and Society in Byzantium. Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1995.
Kaegi, Jr., W. Army, Society and Religion in Byzantium. London: Variorum Reprints, 1982.
Miller, T. and J. Nesbit, eds. Peace and War in Byzantium. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1995.
Rostovzeff, M. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.
TreadGold, W. The Byzantine Revival 780-842. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 1988.
TreadGold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Dolley, R. “The Warships of the Later Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948) 47-53.

Government intervention/involvement in maritime exchange. The role of the Church

Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine Church.

Who were the seafarers - personal possessions from shipwrecks. Life aboard in the year 1000

Bass, G. and F. van Doornink, Yassi Ada: A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 1982.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The 4th-century wreck at Yassi Ada. An interim report on the hull,” IJNA 5 (1976): 115-131.
F.H. van Doorninck, Jr. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-Century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.

The cargo of the Serçe Limani ship.

Bass, G.F. “Glass treasure from the Aegean,” National Geographic Magazine 153.6 (1978) 768-793.
Bass, G.F. “The Nature of the Serçe Limani Glass,” Journal of Glass Studies 26 (1984) 64-69.
Bass, G.F. “The Serçe Limani Glass,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 10-13.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “The cargo amphoras on the 7th-century Yassi Ada and 11th-century Serçe Limani shipwrecks: Two examples of a reuse of Byzantine amphoras as transport jars.” In Recherches sur la céramique byzantine, V. Déroche and J.-M. Spieser, eds. Bulletin de Correspondence Hellénique, Supplement 18 (1989): 247-257.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Amphoras: Old Jars from the North,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 22-23.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Cargo: Diverse and Partly Unknown,” INA Newsletter 15.3 (1988) 4-9.
van Doorninck, F.H. “The Serçe Limani Shipwreck: An 11th-Century Cargo of Fatimid Glassware Cullet for Byzantine Glassmakers,” in 1st International Anatolian Glass Symposium: April 6th-27th, 1988. Istanbul:, 1990, pp. 58-63.

The cargo of the Saracen wrecks.

Arnaud, G., A. Ascenzi, E. Bonucci, and G. Graziani. “On the Problem of the Preservation of Human Bone in Sea Water,” IJNA 9 (1980) 53-65.
Jézégou, Marie-Pierre, et al., “Les épaves sarrasines d’Agay et de Cannes” Archeologia (1997), 337:32-39.
Joncheray, J.P. “Researches off Saint Raphaël and Cannes, 1973”, INJA 3 (1974) 327-328.
Joncheray, J.P. “1974 Excavations at the Wrecks of Bataiguier (Early Middle Ages) and Bon Porté,” INJA 5 (1976) 87-89.
Visquis, A.G. “Premier inventaire du mobilier de l’épave des jarres à Agay,” Cahiers d’Archéologie Subaquatique 2 (1973) 157-166.
Ximenes, Serge, "Etude preliminaire de l’épave sarrasine du rocher de l’Estéou,” Cahiers de Archéologie Subaquatique 5 (1976) 139-150.

Cargo, Freight Rates, and Shipping Contracts

Dotson, J.E. "Tonnage, Medieval and Modern" The Economic History Review 17 (1964) 213-233.
Dotson, J. Freight Rates
Byrne, E.H. Genoese Shipping

Average, Jettison and Contribution

Dotson, J.E. Freight Rates and Shipping Practices in the Medieval Mediterranean
Ashburner, W. The Rhodian Sea Law
Jados, S. Consulate of the Sea

Consulate of the Sea & The Rights and Obligations Concerning Merchants and their Cargos & The Rights and Duties of Sailors

Jados, S. The Consulate of the Sea
Zeno, R. Documenti per la storia del diritto marittimo nei secoli xiii e xiv.
Byrne, E.H. Genoese Shipping
Dotson, J.E. Freight Rates and Shipping Practices in the Medieval Mediterranean
Ashburner, W. The Rhodian Sea Law
Jados, S. The Consulate of the Sea

Security, Warfare, Pirates

Security in the seas. The Mediterranean in the 3rd-5th centuries. Notitia Dignitatum.

Rodgers, W.L. Greek and Roman Naval Warfare. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

Piracy. Roman biremes. Liburnians.

Casson, L. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.
Hocker, F. “Late Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Galleys and Fleets,” in The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 86-100.
Hockmann, O. “The Liburnian: Some Observations and Insights,” IJNA 26 (1997) 192-216.
Panciera, S. “Liburna,” Epigraphica 18 (1956) 130-156.

The ancient-medieval transition and the competition for maritime dominance.

Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1969.
Treadgold, W. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Naval campaigns in the wars of Constantine.

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

The fleet of Anastasius.

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics and Ship Design. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1983.
Rankov, B. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC - AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. R Gardiner (ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995: 78-85.
Zosimus, New History. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982, II and V, 20.

Dromons and the re-emergence of “naval policy”

Dolley, R. “The Warships of the Later Roman Empire.” Journal of Roman Studies 38 (1948): 47-53.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D.. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Naval Organization in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century AD. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Procopius. History of the Wars III-IV (the Vandal and Gothic wars).
Pryor, J.H. “From Byzantine dromon to medieval galley,” in Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times, R. Gardiner, (ed.) Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 1995.
Treadgold, W. Byzantium and its Army 284-1081. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.
Alertz, U. “Ein Graffito aus Malaga-ein Dromon Leos VI?” Das Logbuch 31 (1995) 60-66.
van Doorninck, Jr., F.H. “Did 10th Century Dromons have a Waterline Ram? Another Look at Leo, Tactica, XIX, 69,” Mariner’s Mirror 79 (1993) 387-392.
Harpster, M. Shipbuilding and Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean During the 7th Century: Possible Effects of the Muslim Invasion. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of St. Andrews, 1997.

The themal system of defense

Dain, A., ed. Naumachica. Paris, 1943. (F. Van Doorninck, trans.)
Jenkins, R. Byzantium, the Imperial Centuries AD 610-1071. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966.
Lewis, A.R. and T.J. Runyan. European Naval and Maritime History 300-1500. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
Lewis, A.R. Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean AD 500-1100. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951.
Miles, G.C. “Byzantium and the Arabs: Relations in Crete and the Aegean Area,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) 3-32.
Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1956.
Toynbee A. Constantine Porpyrogenitus and his World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Greek Fire

Casson, L. Ships and seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1970.
Partington, J.R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999
Rodgers, W. Naval Warfare Under Oars: 4th to 16th Centuries. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982.
Turtledove, H. (trans.) The Chronicle of Theophanes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

Leo’s Tactica

Gardiner, R., ed. The Age of the Galley. London, 1995.
Fahmy, A.M. Muslim Sea Power in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D.. Cairo: National Publication & Print. House, 1966.
Gardiner, R., (ed). The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-classical Times. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
Partington, J.R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999
Turtledove, H. (trans.) The Chronicle of Theophanes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.
Leo’s Tactica; Book XIX of the Tactica of Leo VI (886-912).

Atlantic World

Atlantic islands, monsters, and magnets in the bottom of the sea.

Penrose, Boies, Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.
William H. Babcock. Legendary Islands of the Atlantic: A Study in Medieval Geography. New York: , 1922.
Oswald Dreyer-Eimbcke. "The Mythical Island of Frisland." From The Map Collector. No. 26; March 1984. Pp. 48f.
Robert H. Fuson. Legendary Islands Of The Ocean Sea. Sarasota, Florida, 1995.
William Herbert Hobbs. "Zeno and the Cartography of Greenland." From Imago Mundi. Vol. VI. 1949. Pp. 15ff.
Donald S. Johnson. Phantom Islands of the Atlantic. The Legends of Seven Lands that Never Were. New York: 1994.

The Vikings arrive!

Davidson, H. R. Ellis., The Viking Road to Byzantium. London: George, Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1976.
Haywood, J., The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.
Noonan, Thomas S., "Ninth-Century Dirham Hoards from Northwestern Russia and the Southeastern Baltic." Journal of Baltic Studies, XIII, No. 3 (Fall 1982), pp.220-244.
Roesdahl, E., The Vikings. London: Allen Lane, 1991.
Stalsberg, A., "Scandinavian Relations with Northwestern Russia during the Viking Age: The Archaeological Evidence," Journal of Baltic Studies, XIII, No. 3 (Fall 1982), p.272.
Stefansson, J., "The Vikings in Spain, from Arabic (Moorish) and Spanish Sources," Saga Book of the Viking Club, (1909) 6:37-39.
Tuukka Talvio, "Finland's Place in Viking-Age Relations between Sweden and the Eastern Baltic/Northern Russia: The Numismatic Evidence," Journal of Baltic Studies, XIII, No. 3 (Fall 1982), p.246.

Crusades

The Crusading Era (1095-1291)

Billings, M., The Cross and Crescent: A History of the Crusades. New York: Sterling Pub. Co., 1987 (accompanies a radio series of the same name - a nice, quick intro to the main events)
Joinville and Villehardouin., Chronicles of the Crusades. (M.R.B. Shaw, trans. and intro.) Baltimore, MD, Penguin Books, 1963

Louis IX’s ships: size and configuration. Transporting horses: the ergonomic and logistical requirements.

Bacrach, B., “On the Origins of William the Conqueror’s Horse Transports,” Technology and Culture 26 (1985) 503-531.
Pryor, J.H., “The transportation of horses by sea during the era of the Crusades: Eighth century to 1285 A.D.” 2 parts, Mariner’s Mirror 68 (1982): 9-27, 103-125.
Pryor, J.H., “The naval architecture of Crusader transport ships.” 3 parts, Mariner’s Mirror 70 (1984). pp. 266-73; pp.170-219; 274-292; 363-387.
Pryor, J.H., “The naval architecture of Crusader transport ships and horse transports revisited.” Mariner’s Mirror 76 (1990): 267-271

Crusader naval strategy and tactics

France, John, Western warfare in the age of the Crusades, 1000-1300. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
France, John, “The First Crusade as a Naval Enterprise.” (1997) MM. Vol. 83, No.4: 389-397.
Maalouf, Amin, The crusades through Arab eyes. New York: Schocken Books, 1985.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan, (ed.) The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Pryor, J., “A Medieval Maritime Revolution: Crusading By Sea Ca. 1096-1204.” from Tradition and Transition: Maritime Studies in the Wake of the Byzantine Shipwreck at Yassiada. College Station, Texas A&M University. Nov. 2-3, 2007.
Pryor, J., Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2006.
Tate, G. 1996. The Crusaders: Warriors of God. Discoveries Series. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Financing the crusade

Housley, Norman, The Italian Crusades: The Papal-Angevin Alliance and the Crusades Against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Housley, Norman, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Lloyd, S. D., English Society and the Crusade, 1216-1307. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan, (ed). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

The Hospitallers

Sire, H.J.A., The Knights of Malta, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994.
Atauz, Ayse D., Eight Thousand Years of Maltese Maritime History: Trade, Piracy, and Naval Warfare in the Central Mediterranean, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Renaissance

Italy and the Renaissance, 1025-1453. The commercial explosion.

Ashtor, E., East-West Trade in the Medieval Mediterranean. B. Z. Kedar (ed.) London: Variorum Reprints, 1986.
Byrne, E.H., Genoese shipping in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Cambridge, Mass., The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1930; New York, Kraus Reprint Co., 1970.
Lopez, R.S., and I.W. Raymond. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative documents. New York: Columbia University Press, 1955.
Pirenne, H., Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.
Sapori, A., The Italian Merchant in the Middle Ages. New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1970.

Ownership: ships and ventures. Capital and loans. Contracts and obligations. Stowage

E.H. Byrne, Genoese shipping in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Cambridge, Mass., The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1930; New York, Kraus Reprint Co., 1970. 18
R.S. Lopez and I.W. Raymond. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World: Illustrative documents. New York: Columbia University Press, 1955
Miskimin, H.A. The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300-1460. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Miskimin, H.A. Cash, credit and crisis in Europe, 1300-1600. London: Variorum Reprints, 1989.
Lane, F.C. Venice and History: The Collected Papers of Frederic C. Lane. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966.
Scammel, G.V. The World Encompassed: The First European Maritime Empires, c. 800-1650. New York: Methuen, 1981.
Scandurra, E. “The Maritime Republics: Medieval and Renaissance Ships in Italy,” in A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology, G.F. Bass, ed. London, 1972.
Unger, R. The Ship in the Medieval Economy. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.
Hoover, C. B., The Sea Loan in Genoa in the 12th Century.

The Venetian Arsenal. Private shipbuilding.

Davis, R. C., Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Lane, F.C., Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1992 c1934.
Lane, F.C., Venice and History: The Collected Papers of Frederic C. Lane. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1966.
Lane, F.C., Money and banking in medieval and Renaissance Venice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985.
Lane, F.C., Studies in Venetian Social and Economic History. London: Variorum Reprints, 1987.
Lloyd, M., The Provisioning of Medieval Ships in the Mediterranean Sea, 300-1500. Report on file in the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program Library.
Ray, L.E. Venetian Ships and Seafaring up to the Nautical Revolution: A Study Based on Artistic Representations of Ships and Boats before ca 1450. M.A. Thesis, Texas A&M University, 1992.

Shipbuilding in Venice: Naval Architecture

Anderson R.C. "Italian Naval Architecture about 1445," MM 11 (1925) 135-154.
Anderson R.C. Oared Fighting Ships 52-60.
Chiggiato Alvise, "Le Ragioni Antique," Dell'Architettura Navale 57-79.
Lane F.C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance 88-99.
Lane F.C."Naval Architecture about 1550," Venice and History 163- 188.

Sea Law: rights of owners and sailors

Pryor, J. H., Commerce, Shipping and Naval Warfare in the Medieval Mediterranean. London: Variorum Reprints, 1987.

The Trombetta MS and the book of Michael of Rhodes.

Anderson, R.C., “Jal’s Memoire no. 5 and the Manuscript ‘Fabrica di Galere’,” Mariner's Mirror (1945) 31:160-167;
Anderson, R.C., “Italian Naval Architecture about 1445,” Mariner's Mirror (1925), 11:135-163.
Bellabarba, Sergio, “The square Rigged Ship of the ‘Fabrica di Galere’ Manuscript,” Mariner's Mirror (1988) 74.2:113-130.
Jal, Auguste. Archéologie Navale, Paris: Arthus Bertrand Éditeur, 1840.
McGee, David (2008). "The Shipbuilding Text of Michael of Rhodes” in Nowacki, Horst e Wolfgang Lefèvre, Creating Shapes in Civil and Naval Architecture. Berlin, Max Plank Institut fur Wissenschaftsgeschichte.
McManamon, John, "The "Archaeology" of Fifteenth-Century Manuscripts on Shipbuilding," INA Quarterly (2001) 28.4: 17-26.
Lane, Frederic, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance, Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1934, 56-57.
Lane, Frederic, “Naval Architecture about 1550,” Mariner's Mirror (1934) 20:24- 49;

Sea Loans

Hoover, C.B. "The Sea loan in Genoa in the twelfth century" Quarterly Journal of Economics 40 (1925-1926) 495-529.
Pryor, J.H. "The origins of the Commenda contract" Speculum 52 (1977) 5-13.
de Roover, F.E. "Partnership accounts in twelfth-century Genoa" Bulletin of Business Historical Society 15 (1941) 87-92.
de Roover, R. "The Cambium Maritimum contract..." Government in Medieval Italy 15-33.

Iberian Ships

Trading in all directions. The Iberian Discoveries.

Byrne, Eugene H. Genoese Shipping in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Cambridge: Mediaval Academy of America; 1930.
Lane, F.C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1992 c1934.
Dotson, John E., "Jal's Nef X and Genoese Naval Architecture in the Thirteenth Century", Mariner's Mirror, (1973) 59: 161-70.
Dotson, John E., "Merchant and Naval Influences on Galley Design at Venice and Genoa in the Fourteenth Century", New Aspects of Naval History, Symonds, Craig L., ed. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1981: 20-32.
Epstein, Steven E., Genoa and the Genoese, 958-1528, Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Epstein, Steven E., "Labour and Port Life in Medieval Genoa", Mediterranean Historical Review, 1988 3: 114-40.
Jacoby, David. Trade, Commodities and Shipping in the Medieval Mediterranean. Aldershot, GB: Valiorum Reprints; 1997.

On the origin of the 3-masted ship

Bellabarba, Sergio, “Note Sull’Origine Della Nave A Tre Alberi”, Archeologia Delle Acque. I:2, 1999. (English translation on file in the Texas A&M University, Nautical Archaeology Program Library).

Caravels, naus and galleons.

Rahn-Phillips, Carla, "Galleons" Fast Sailing Ships of the Mediterranean and Atlantic, 1500-1650", in R. Gardiner ed., Cogs, Caravels and Galleons, ed. R. Gardiner, London: Conway Maritime Press, 1994: 98-114.
Schwarz, George, The History and Development of Caravels, MA Thesis, College Station: Texas A&M University, 2008.

Lateen rigged craft: the Contarina vessels. Iconographic evidence.

Bonino, M. “Lateen-rigged Medieval Ships: New Evidence from Wrecks in the Po Delta (Italy) and Notes on Pictorial and Other Documents,” IJNA 7 (1978) 9-28.
Relazione. “Sulla scoperta di due barche antiche nel territorio del commune di Contarina in Provincia di Rovigo nel gennaio 1898,” Commissione della R Deputazione di Storia patria per le Venezie. Venice, 1990.

Galleys and Guns

Galleys, guns, and the Ottomans

Davis, R. C., Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Guilmartin, J. Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare in the 16th Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
Partington, J.R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Galleys

d’Agostino, et. al. Lago di Garda, Lazise (VR). Relitto di Nave Lunga Veneziana il Relazione Preliminare. Venice: 1998.
Bondioli, Mauro, and Penzo, Gilberto, "Teodoro Baxon e Nicola Palopano Proti delle Galee Sottili. L'Influsso greco nelle costruzioni navali Veneziane della prima metà del XV secolo", Archeologia delle Acque, Nucleo Archaeologia Subacquea del Veneto, (Jul-Dec 1999) 1.2.
Bondioli, Mauro, “The Arsenal of Venice and the Art of Building Ships,” in Beltrame, C., ed., Boats, Ships and Shipyards, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Ship and Boat Archaeology, Venice, Italy, 2000. London: Oxbow Books, 2003, p. 10-
Bondioli, Mauro, “The art of designing and building Venetian galleys from the 15th to the 16th centuries,” in Beltrame, C., ed., Boats, Ships and Shipyards, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Ship and Boat Archaeology, Venice, Italy, 2000. London: Oxbow Books, 2003, p.222-
Gardiner, R., ed., The Age of the Galley:Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre- Classical Times, London: Conway Maritime Press.
Dotson, John E., "Merchant and Naval Influences on Galley Design at Venice and Genoa in the Fourteenth Century", New Aspects of Naval History, Symonds, Craig L., ed. Annapolis: 1981, 20-32.
Guilmartin, John, Galleons and Galleys, London: Cassel & Co., 2002.

Early gun founding in the Mediterranean

Hime, Lieut.-Colonel Henry W. L., The Origin of Artillery. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.

Naval Weapons other than Cannon: Individual Weaponry

Guilmartin, J.F. Gunpowder and Galleys 135-157 and appendix I.
Lane, F.C. "The crossbow in the Nautical revolution of the Middle Ages" Economy, Society, and Government in Medieval Italy.

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