Medieval Northern Europe

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Contents

The Roman Period and "Celtic" Shipbuilding

Haywood. Dark Age Naval Power

Ellmers, Detlev. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt in Mittel- und Nordeuropa

Lehmann, L.Th. "Variations in boatbuilding under the Roman Empire" Carvel Construction Technique Oxbow Monograph # 12

Lewis, A.R. The Northern Seas

Marsden, P. "A Boat of the Roman Period Found at Bruges, Belgium, in 1899, and Related Types" IJNA 5 (1976): 23-55.

Marsden, P. "Celtic Ships of Europe" Sources and Techniques in Boat Archaeology

McGrail, Sean. Ancient Boats in N.W. Europe: The Archaeology of Water Transport to AD 1500

McGrail, Sean. The Brigg 'Raft' and her Prehistoric Environment BAR #89.

Taylor, J. du P. Roman Shipping and Trade: Britain and the Rhine Provinces

Wright, E.V. The North Ferriby Boats. A Guidebook

Roman London

Milne, G. The Port of Roman London

Blackfriars and Bruges Vessels

Marsden, Peter. "A 100-ft First Century Roman Ship, Discovered in the Blackfriar Mud" Illustrated London News (1963).

Marsden, Peter. A Roman Ship from Blackfriars, London

Marsden, Peter. A Ship of the Roman Period from Blackfriars in the City of London

Marsden, Peter. "Celtic Ships of Europe" Sources and Techniques in Boat Archaeology BAR Supp. #29 (1977).

Marsden, Peter. "A Boat of the Roman Period Found at Bruges, Belgium, in 1899, and related Types" IJNA 5 (1976): 23-55.

Marsden, Peter. "A Re-assessment of Blackfriars I" Maritime Celts, Frisians, and Saxons CBA Research Reports 71.

Muckelroy, Keith. Maritime Archaeology

The Guernsey Vessel

Rule, Margaret. "The Romano-Celtic ship excavated at St. Peter Port, Guernsey" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons

Swiss Lake Boats of Bevais & Yverdon

Arnold, B. "La barque gallo-romaine de la Baie de Bevaix" Cahiers d'archeologie subaquatine 3: 133-150.

Arnold, B. "The Gallo-Roman boat from the Bay of Bevaix, Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland" IJNA 4: 123-126.

Arnold, B. "Gallo-Roman Boat find in Switzerland" Roman Shipping and Trade

Arnold, B. "Some Remarks on Caulking in Celtic Boat Construction and its Evolution in Areas Lying Northwest of the Alpine Arc" IJNA 6 (1977): 293-297.

Arnold, B. "The heritage of logboats and Gallo-Roman boats of Lake Neuchatel: technology and typology" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons.

Arnold, B. "The Gallo-Roman boat of Bevaix and the bottom based construction" Carvel Construction Technique

Egloff, M. "La Barque de Bevaix, epave gallo-romaine du lac de Neuchatel" Helvetia Archaeologica 19/20 (1974): 82-91.

Taylor. Roman Shipping and Trade: Britain and the Rhine Provinces

Weidmann, D. "La barque romaine d'Yverdon" Helvetia Archeologica 19/20: 66-81.

Mainz Patrol Boats

Hockmann, O. "Late Roman River Craft from Mainz, Germany" Local Boats 23-34.

Hockmann, O. "Keltisch' oder 'romisch'? Bemerkungen zur Typgenese der spatromischen Rudershiffe von Mainz" Jahrbuch des RomischGermanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 30 (1983) 403-434.

Hockmann, O. "Rheimschiffe aus der Zeit Ammians" Antike Welt 13.3 (1982): 40-47.

Hockmann, O. "Romische Schiffsverbande auf dem Ober- und Mittelrhein und die Verteidigung der Rheingrenze in der Spatantike" Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 33 (1986): 369-416.

Hockmann, O. "Spatromische Schifsfunde in Mainz" Archaeologisches Korrespondenzblatt 12 (1982): 231-250.

Rupprecht, G. Die Mainzer Romerschiffe

The Oberstimm Boats

Hockmann, O. "Roman Danube Vessels from Oberstimm, Germany" Tropis II: 2nd International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity.

Hockmann, O. "Roman Danube vessels from Oberstim (Germany) as examples of 'shell-first' construction" in Carvel Construction Technique

Roman River Fleets

Hockmann, O. "Romische Schiffsbverbande auf dem Ober- und Mittelrhein und die Verteidigung der Rheingrenze in der Spatantike" Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 33 (1986): 369-416.

The Zwammerdam and Other Barges

Boe, G. de "Roman Boats form a Small River Harbour at Pommereuol, Belgium" Roman Shipping and Trade

Lehmann, L. Th. "The Romano-Celtic boats from Druten and Kapel- Avezaath" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons

Rupprecht. Die Mainzer Romerschiffe

Weerd, M.D. de. "Romerzeitliche Transportschiffe und Einbaume aus Nigrum Pullum/Zwammerdam (Z.-H.)" Studien zu den Militargrenzen Roms 2 (1977): 187-198.

Weerd, M.D. de. "Ships of the Roman Period at Zwammerdam/Nigrum, Pullum, Germania Inferior" Roman Shipping and Trade

Weerd, M.D. de. "A Landlubber's View of Shipbuilding Procedure in the Celtic Barges of Zwammerdam, The Netherlands" Local Boats

Weerd, M.D. de. "Barges of the Zwammerdam type and their building procedures" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons

Weerd, M.D. de. "Schepen voor het opschepen" Spiegel Historiael 8 (1973): 386-397.

Roman Coastal Defences: The Litus Saxonicum

Haywood, J. Dark Age Naval Power

Johnson, S. The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore

Johnston, D.E. The Saxon Shore CBA #18

Welsby, D.A. The Roman Military Defense of the British Provinces in Its Later Phases BAR #101.

White, D.A. Litus Saxonicum

Nydam

Akerlund, H. Nydamskeppen

Blair, Peter Hunter. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England

Boehmer, G "Prehistoric Naval Architecture of the North of Europe" U.S. National Museum Report.

Cameron, P.N. "Saxon, sea and sail" IJNA 11.4 (1982) 319-332.

Engelhardt, C. Denmark in the Early Iron Age.

Goodbum, D.M. "Comments on 'Saxon, sea and sail" IJNA 12.2 (1983): 173-174.

Hodgkin, R.H. A History of the Anglo-Saxons

Loyn, H.R. Anglo-Saxon England and the Norman Conquest

Marcus, G.M. "The Nydam Craft and the Anglo-Saxon Invasions" MM 41 (1955): 66.

McGrail, Sean. Ancient Boats in N.W. Europe

Shetelig, H. "Das Nydamschiff" Acta Archaeologica 1 (1980).

The Pattern of the Settlement

Bohme, H.W. "Das Ende der Romerherrschaft in Britannien and die angelsachsische Besiedlung Englands im 5.Jahrundert" Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 33 (1986): 469- 574.

Gildas. De excidio et conquestu Britanniae

Hodgkin, R.H. A History of the Anglo-Saxons

Myres, J.N.L. The English Settlements

Wood, I. "The Channel from the 4th to the 7th centuries AD" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons.

Anglo-Saxon Britain General Works

Beowulf

The Wanderer

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "The Gredstedbro Ship" Acta Archaeologica 39 (1968): 262-267.

Filmer-Sankey, W. "A new boat burial from the Snape Anglo-Saxon cemetery, Suffolk" Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons

Goodburn, D.M. "Do We Have Evidence of a Saxon Boatbuilding Tradition?" IJNA 15 (1986): 39-47.

Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000.

Sutton Hoo

Bruce-Mitford, Rupert. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial volumes 1-4.

Bruce-Mitford, Rupert. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial; A Handbook

Phillips, C.W. "The Excavation of the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial" Antiquaries Journal 20 (1940): 149-202.

Phillips, C.W. "The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. I. The Excavation" Antiquity 14 (1940): 6-27.

Evans, A.C. "The Sutton Hoo Ship" Three Major Ancient Finds in Britain NMM Monograph #6.

Graveney

Fenwick, Valier. The Graveney Boat: A Tenth-Century Find from Kent.

The 'Keel'

Ellmers, D. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt in Mittel- und Nordeuropa: 47-59.

Early Medieval Trade: Regional Emporia

Barnish, S.J.B. "The Transformation of Classical Cities and the Pirenne Debate" Journal of Roman Archaeology 2 (1989): 385- 400.

Hodges, R. "North Sea Trade Before the Vikings" Archaeological Approaches to Medieval Europe.

Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000

Hodges, R. Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe: Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis

Jellema, D. "Frisian Trade in the Dark Ages" Speculum 30 (1955): 15-33.

Dorestad

Es, W.A. van Excavations at Dorestad I. The Harbour:

Hoogstraat 1.

The Port of Hamwih

Hodges, R. The Hamwih Pottery-The Local and Imported Wares from Thirty Years Excavations in Middle Saxon Southampton and Their European Context CBA# 37.

Hodges, R. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000

Haithabu

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. Das Haithabuschiff

Jankuhn, H. Haithabu: Ein Handelsplatz der Wikingerzeit

The Kvalsund and Klaastad Vessels

Brogger, A.W. Viking Ships. Their Ancestry and Evolution

Christensen, A.E. "Viking Age Ships and Shipbuilding" Norwegian Archaeological Review 15 (1982) 19-28.

Christensen, A.E. Klaastadskipet

Evans, A. "A Clinker-Built Boats of the North Sea, 300-1000 A.D." A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology

Greenhill, B. Archaeology of the Boat: A New Introduction Study

McGrail, Sean. Ancient Boats in N.W. Europe: The Archaeology of Water Transport to A.D. 1500

McGrail, Sean. "Further Aspects of Viking Age Boatbuilding" Archaeology of the Boat: A New Introductory Study

Mollet, M. "Les marins et la guerre sur mer dans le Nord et l'Ouest de l'Europe jusqu'au XIIe siecle" Ordinamenti militari in Occidente

Muller-Wille. "Boat Graves in Northern Europe" IJNA 3 (1974): 187-204.

Shetelig, Haakon. Scandanavian Archaeology

Shetelig, Haakon. Kvalsundfundet: Og Andre Norske Myrfund Av Fartoier

Oseberg

Brogger, A.W. Osebergfundet

Brogger, A.W. The Viking Ships

Christensen, A.E. A Guide to the Viking Ship Museum

Gokstad

Atkinson, Ian. The Viking Ships

Dammann, W. Das Gokstadschiff und seine Boote

Nicolaysen, Nicolay. Langskibet fra Gokstad

Nicolaysen, Nicolay. The Viking Ship Discovered at Gokstad in Norway

Sjovold, Thorleif. The Viking Ships in Oslo

Throckmorton, Peter. The Sea Remembers

Skuldelev

Atkinson, I. The Viking Ships

Binns, Alan. "The Ships of the Vikings, were they "Viking Ships"?" Proceedings of Eighth Viking Congress (1981)

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Viking shipbuilding and Seamanship" Proceedings of Eighth Viking Congress(1981)

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. Aspects of Maritime Scandinavia: AD 200- 1200

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Viking Shipbuilding and Seamanship" Proceedings of the Eight Viking Congress (1977)

Magnusson, Magnus. Vikings!

Olsen, Olaf. Five Viking Ships from Roskilde Fjord

Olsen, Olaf. "The Skuldelev Ships" Acta Archaeologica 38 (1967: 73-174.

Olsen, Olaf. "The Skuldelev Ships (II)" Acta Archaeologica (1968)" 73-174.

Vikings: Expansion and Colonization

Roesdahl. Viking Age Denmark

The British Isles: The Danelaw and Alfred the Great

Blair, Peter Hunter. An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England

Duckett, Eleanor Shipley. Alfred the Great

Hart, Cyril. The Danelaw

Keynes, Simon. Alfred the Great

Iceland

Byock, J.L. Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas, and Power

Jones, G. The Norse Atlantic Saga

Thorgilsson, A. Islendingabokfrom Islandica

Landnamabok

Normandy

Bachrach, B.S. "On the Origins of William the Conqueror's Horse Transports" Technology and Culture 26 (1985)" 505-531.

Grainge, C. "The Pevensey Expedition: Brilliantly Executed Plan or near Disaster" MM 79.3 (1993): 261-273.

Lindsay, J. The Normans and their World

Jones, G. A History of the Vikings

Poly, J.P. The Feudal Transformation 900-1200

Roesdahl, E. The Vikings

Rowley, T. The Norman Heritage 1055-1200

Rud, M. The Bayeaux Tapestry

Vinland

Christensen, A.E. "Test Excavations of the boat-sheds" Discovery of a Norse Settlement in America

Ingstad, A.S. "The Norse settlement at l'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland: A preliminary report from the excavations 1961- 1968" Acta Archaeologica 41 (1970): 109-156.

Ingstad, A.S. "Vinland Ruins Prove Vikings Found the New World" National Geographic 126.5 (1964): 708-734.

Mowat, Farley. Westviking: The Ancient Norse in Greenland and North America

Navigation

Binns, A.L. "Hull:sun navigation in the Viking Age, and the Canterbury portable sundial" Acta Archaeologica 42 (1971): 23- 34.

Gelsinger, B.E. "Notes- the Norse 'Day Sailing'" MM 56 (1970): 107-109.

Marcus, G.J. "The Navigation of the Norsemen" MM 39 (1953): 112- 131.

Morcken, R. "Norse Nautical Units and Distance Measurements" MM 42 (1966): 393-401

Viking Sails and Rigging

Christensen A.E. "Viking Age Rigging, A Survey of Sources and Theories" The Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern Europe

Cottell, G.A. "The Gokstad Viking Ship: Some New Theories Concerning the Purpose of Certain of its Constructional Features" MM 70 (1984) 129-142.

Gillmer, T. "The Capability of the Single Square Sail Rig-A Technical Assessment" The Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern Europe

Lindow, J. "Sailing and Interpreting the Ships on the Gotland Stones" The American Neptune 53 (1993): 39-50.

Roberts, O.T.P. "A Comparison of Sail Control Methods in Second Century BC Egypt and in Viking Gotland" MM 73 (1987): 87-89.

Roberts, O.T.P. "Shroudless in Scandinavia?" IJNA 19(1990): 123-128.

Roberts, O.T.P. "The Bayeux Tapestry Sails" MM 68 (1982): 76-77 and MM (1981): 287-288.

Sleewswyk, A.W. "Different Functions of Hand Reefs on Nordic Square Sails" MM 67 (1981): 288-289.

Sleeswyk, A.W. "The Ship of Harold Godwinson" MM 67 (1981): 87-91 and notes in MM 67 (1981): 287-289 and MM 68 (1982): 76-77.

Lindow, J. "Sailing and interpreting the ships on the Gotland stones" The American Neptune53 (1993): 39-50.

Performance of Viking Ships

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Comment on Museum Report: The Viking Ship Museum, Roskilde (IJNA 16:358-352)" IJNA 17 (1988): 270-271.

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. Sailing into the Past

McGrail, Sean. The Building and Trials of the Replica of an Ancient Boat: The Gokstad Faering

McGrail, Sean. "Aspects of Experimental Boat Archaeology" Sources and Techniques in Boat Archaeology

Naval Tactics of the Vikings

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

Janzen, A. "Naval Strategy in Twelfth-Century Scandinavia" Scandinavian Studies

Mollat, M. "Les marins et la guerre sur mer dans le Nord et l'Ouest de l'Europe jusqu'au XIIe siecle" Ordinamenti militari in Occidente (1967).

Rodgers, W.L. Naval Warfare Under Oars 4th to 16th Centuries

Sturluson, S. Helmskringla: History of the Kings of Norway

Franks, Frisians, and Trade in the First Millennium

Barnish, S.J.B. "The Transformation of Classical Cities and the Pirenne Debate" Journal of Roman Archaeology 2 (1989): 385- 400.

McGrail, Sean. Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons

Hodges, R. "Frisians and Franks: Argonauts of the Dark Ages" Archaeology 37.1 (1984): 26-31.

Jellema, D. "Frisian Trade in the Dark Ages" Speculum 30 (1955): 15-33.

Carolingian Naval Policy

Bachrach, B.S. "On the Origins of William the Conqueror's Horse Transports" Technology and Culture 26 (1985): 505-531.

Gerberding, Richard A. The Rise of the Carolingians

Haywood Dark Age Naval Power

Lewis, Archibald. "Byzantium as an Integral Part of European Christendom: Political and Military Factors, 568-1204 A.D." The Sea and Medieval Civilizations. Vaiorum Reprints, 1978.

McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms Under the Carolingians: 751-987

The Fossa Carolina

Ellmers, D. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt in Mittel- und Nordeuropa

Haywood, J. Dark Age Naval Power

Dorestad

Es, W.A. van. Excavations at Dorestad 1.The Harbour: Hoogstraat 1

Haithabu

Crulin-Pedersen, Ole Das Haithabuschiff

Hodges, R. Mohammed, Charlemagne, and the Origins of Europe

Jankuhn, H. Haithabu: Ein Handelsplatz der Wikingerzeit

Randsborg, K. The Viking Age in Denmark

The Hansa; Origins, Structure, and Competition

Barraclough, G. The Origins of Modern Germany

Bernard, J. Navires et gens de mer a Bordeaux [partially translated by TAMU students]

Boxer, C.R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600-1800

Dollinger, P. The German Hanse

Hocker, Frederick. "Cogge en coggeschip: Late Trends in Cog Development" Bouwtraditie en Scheepstype

Heinsius, P. Das Schiff der hansischen Fruhzeit

Lewis. The Northern Seas

Ramsay, G.D. English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence.

Reinders, Reinder. Cog Finds from the IJsselmeerpolders

Scammel, G.V. The World Encompassed: The first European maritime empires c.800-1650

Schildahauer. The Hanse

Unger. The Ship in the Medieval Economy

Novgorod

Dawson, H.R. Ellis. The Viking Road to Byzantium

Grey, Ian. The Horizon History of Russia

Jordan, Robert "When the Rus Invaded Russia: Viking Trail East" National Geographic 167.3 (Mar 1985).

Karger, M. Novgorod the Great

Kolchin, B.A. Wooden Artifacts from Medieval Novgorod BAR 495

Mongait, A.L. Archaeology in the USSR

Bryggen and Kalmar I

Aakerlund, Harald. Fartygsfynden I den Forna Hamnen I Kalmar

Brogger and Shetelig. The Viking Ships

Herteig, Asbjorn E. The Bryggen Papers Oslo, Universitetsforlaget As.

Cogs

Heinsium P. Das Schiff der hansischen Fruhzeit

Hocker, F. "Cogge en Coggenschip: Late Trends in Cog Development" Bouwtraditie en Scheepstype

Reinders, H.R. Cog Finds from the Ijsselmeerpolders

Origins of the Cogs

Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. From Viking Ships to Hanseatic Cogs

Ellmers, Detlev. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelschiffahrt

Ellmers, D. "The Cog of Bremen and Related Boats" The Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern Europe

Ellmers, D. "The Cog of Bremen and Related Boats" Medieval Ships and Harbors in Northern Europe

Ellmers, D. "The History of the Cog as a Ship Type" The Hanse Cog of 1380

Hocker, Frederick. The Development of a Bottom-based Shipbuilding Tradition in Northwestern Europe and the New World

Marsden, Peter. "A Boat of the Roman Period Found at Bruges Belgium in 1899, and related Types" IJNA 5 (1976) 23-55.

Olechnowitz, K.F. Der Schiffbau der hansichen Spatzeit

The Bremen Cog

Abel, H. Die Bremer Hanse-Kogge

Crumlin-Pedersen, O. "The Vikings and the Hanseatic Merchants: 900-1450" History of Seafaring

Damman, Werner. "Die Bremer Kogge in Kiel" Das Logbuch 25 (1989): 95-108.

Dollinger, P. The German Hansa

Ellmers, D. "The Cog of Bremen and Related Boats" The Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern Europe BAR S66.

Fliedner, S. The Cog of Bremen

Greenhill, B. Archaeology of the Boat

Heinsius, P. Das Schiff de Hansischen Fruhzeit

Kiedel, K.P. Die Hanse-Kogge von 1380

Kiedel, K.P. The Hanse Cog of 1380

McGrail, Sean. The Ship. Rafts, Boats and Ships from Prehistoric Times to he Medieval Era.

McGrail, Sean. Ancient Boats in N.W. Europe. The Archaeology of Water Transport to AD 1500

Olechnowitz, K.F. Der Schiffbau der hansichen Spatzeit

Reinders, R. "Cog finds from the Ijsselmeerpolders" Flevobericht #248.

NZ 43, A Cog-like Vessel from the Zuiderzee

Moortel, A. van de. A Cog-Like Vessel from the Netherlands [both A&M Thesis and as a Flevobericht(1992)]

Danish Cogs

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Danish Cog Finds" Archaeology of Medieval Ships and Harbours in Northern Europe

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Cog-Kogge-Kaag. Traek af en frisisk skibstypes historie" Handels- & Sofartsmuseet pa Kronburg, aarbog 1965.

Crumlin-Pederson, Ole. "Kogen med Guldskatten" Skalk 6: 9-15.

Ellmmers, Detlev. "Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt" Mittel- und Nordeuropa, Schriften des Deutschen Schifahrtsmuseum #3.

Heinsius, P. Das Schiff der hansischen Fruhzeit

The Binnenweg

Ketner, F. "Amsterdam in de binnenvaart door Holland in de 15e eeuw." Bijdragen voor Vaderlandsche Geschiedenis en oudheidkunde 8th series 4 (1943): 169-200.

Ketner, F. Handel en Scheepvart van Amsterdam in de Vijftiende Eeuw.

Petri, F. "Die Stellung der Sudersee- und IJsselstadte im Flandersich-Hansischen Raum" Hansische Geschichtblatter 79 (1961): 34-57.

Smit, H.J. "Het Kamper pondtolregister van 1439-1441" Economisch-Historisch Jaarboek 5 (1919): 209-295.

Unger, W.S. De Tol van Iersekeroord

Vaughan, R. Valois Burgundy

The Utrecht Boat

Philipsen, J.P.W. "The Utrecht Ship" MM 51: 35-46.

Vlek, Robert. The Mediaeval Utrecht Boat: the history and evaluation of one of the first nautical archaeological excavations and reconstructions in the Low Countries BAR 382 (1987).

Cog-Like Vessels and Canal Boats

Hocker, Frederick. The Development of a Bottom Based Shipbuilding Tradition in Northwestern Europe and the New World

Reinders, H.R. Drie Schepen uit de late middeleeuwen Flevobericht #166.

Reinders, Reinder. Shipwrecks of the Zuiderzee Flevobericht #197.

Prams

Ellmers, D. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt

Ebersdorf Model

Christensen, A.W. "A Medieval Ship Model" IJNA 16 (1987): 69-70.

Steusloff. "Das Eberdorfer Koggenmodell von 1400" Deutsche Schifahrtsarchiv 6 (1983): 189-207 with English Translation.

Oost Flevoland U 34

Reinders, Reinder. Mittelalterliche Schiffsfunde in den Ijsselmeerpoldern (With English Translation).

Oosting, Robert. "Mittelalterliche Schiffsfunde in den Ijsselmeerpolders" [Translated by F. Hocker] Wilhelmshavener Tage Nr. 2: Landliche und stadtische Kustensiedlungen im ersten und zweiten Jahrtausend (1989).

Hulks

Ellmers, Detlev. Fruhmittelalterliche Handelsschiffahrt

Greenhill, B. Archaeology of the Boat: A new introductory Story

Heinsius, P. Das Schiff der hansischen Fruhzeit

Reinders, Reinder. Mittelalterliche Schiffsfunde in den IJsselmeerpolders Flevobericht

Steusloff, W. "Das Eberdorfer Koggenmodell von 1400" Deutsche Schiffahrtsarchiv 6 (1983): 189:-207 with an English Translation.

Grace Dieuand the Lancastrian Navy

Anderson, R.C. "The Burlsedon Ship" MM 20 (1934): 158-170.

Prynne, M.W. "Annual Lecture of the Society for Nautical Research: Henry V's Grace Dieu" MM 54.2 (1968): 115-128.

Rose, Susan. The Navy of the Lancastrian Kings: Accounts and Inventories of William Soper, Keeper of the King's Ships 1422- 1427 NRS# 1982.

Turner, W.F. "The Building of the Grace Dieu, Valentine and Falconer at Southampton, 1416-1420" MM 40.1 (1954): 55-72.

The Gdansk Copper Wreck

Litwin, J. "The Copper Wreck: The Wreck of a Medieval Ship Raised by the Central Maritime Museum in Gdansk, Poland" IJNA 9 (1980): 217-226.

The Aber W'rach Wreck

Aakerland, H. Fartygsfunden i den Forna Hamnen i Kalmar

L'Hour, M. "A Mid-15th Century Clinker Boat Off the North Coast of France, the Aber Wrach'h I Wreck: A Preliminary Report" IJNA 18 (1989): 285-298.

L'Hour, M. and E. Veyrat. 1994. "The French Medieval Clinker Wreck from Aber Wrac'h." in ISBSA VI, Crossroads in Ancient Shipbuilding: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Roskilde 1991, edited by C. Westerdahl, 165 - 180. Oxford: Oxbow Monographs.

Navigation in the Middle Ages and the Advances of the Fifteenth Century

Bang, N.E. Tabeller over skibsfart og varetransport gennem Oresund, 1497-1660 Volume 1.

Cline, D.A. Navigation in the Age of Discovery, an introduction

Lane, F.C. "The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass" American Historical Review 48 (1963): 605-617.

Marcus, G.J. "The Navigation of the Norsemen" MM 39 (1953): 112- 131.

Morcken, R. "Norse Nautical Units and Distance Measurements" MM 42 (1966): 393-401.

Taylor, E.G.R. The Haven-Finding Art

Waters, D.W. Science and the Techniques of navigation in the Renaissance NMM Monograph #19.

The Sound Toll of 1497

Bang, Nina Ellinger Tabeller over Skibsfart og Varetransport gennem Oresund: 1497-1660

The Rise of Holland

Ketner, F. Handel en scheepvaart van Amsterdam in de vijftiend eeuw.



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