Pepper Wreck: 2000 Field Season
The fourth and final field season on the Pepper wreck finished in August 2000, at least in terms of the field work. It was sponsored by the Instituto Português de Arqueologia (IPA), through its underwater archaeology department, the Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Náutica e Subaquática (CNANS), and the INA. In this last season we were also sponsored by MARCASCAIS, the company that manages the new marina of Cascais, where our boats were stationed. This wreck, thought to be the remains of an early 17th century Portuguese East Indiaman was discovered in 1994.
As it always happens in underwater archaeology, the conservation work and analysis of the artifacts will go on for a long time, as well as the reconstruction of the hull. In fact, the hull has shown to be the most important of the artifacts on this site. Although it consists of a very small portion of the bottom of the ship, its timbers, with construction marks engraved on their faces, speak volumes.
The wreck site is located within an area that might be termed an archaeological complex, a relatively small stretch of sea bottom containing several shipwrecks.
The records often correspond with and explain the provenience of artifacts retrieved or located near São Julião da Barra. These known wrecks date from the late 16th century to the middle 20th century (Table I).
|1587||San Juan Baptista||Lisbon||Near the fortress|
|1606||Nossa Senhora dos Martires||Cochin, India||Under the walls of the fortress|
|1625||Sao Francisco Xavier||Cochin, India||Presumably near, south of the fortress|
|1733||Union||St. Malo, France||Near the fortress|
|1753||Dutch vessel||Presumably near, east of the fortress|
|1802||English vessel||Near the fortress|
|WWI||Maria Eduarda||Viana, Portugal||Presumably near, west of the fortress|
|1966||Santa Mafalda||Near the fortress|