Brick Architectural Details
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF BRICK DESCRIPTIONS AND BRICK BONDS >>>>
Stopped end - a wall brought to a neat or a flush termination
Bonded wall - The brick courses from two intersecting walls are interlaced to maximize strength.
Abutting wall - a brick wall that simply butts up against another wall. The courses of bricks from the the meeting walls are not interlaced.
Brick bonding -- bricks are laid in alternating courses consisting of some combination of headers and stretchers.
Thus the distinctive brick bonds
are described in terms of courses and the way the headers and stetchers show on the wall.
English Bond - alternating rows of stretchers and rows of headers. A course of headers is followed by a course
of stretchers, and so on.
The most common brick bonding pattern in the 17th century.
Flemish Bond - Each course of bricks consist of alternating headers and stretchers.
Most common in the 18th century. Some think that it looks less monotonous. A single flemish bond brick wall was found at Port Royal.
Herringbone pattern - bricks laid in "V" pattern. Commonly used in floors and patios for a decorative
effect. Sometimes found as a
decorative effect on walls. Rooms in Building 1, 4, and five had herringbone pattern brick floors.
Brick mortar - mortar used to bond brick. Brick mortar will always have the impression of a brick on two sides.
Wall plaster - very similar looking to brick mortar, but is commonly is white-washed on one side and always
has the impression of
the headers and stretchers of the wall on the back side of the plaster.
Ceiling plaster - very similar to wall plaster and is also commonly white-washed, but on the back side there
is always the impression of the
ceiling lathes which holds the plaster to the ceiling. At Port Royal the lathing consists of interwoven branches and grass bundles. In the 18th
and 19th centuries the lathing often consists of flat, thin strips of wood nailed to the rafters and in the 20th century may even be a metal mesh.
|ROW HOUSE -- THREE SEPARATE BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS -- left to right
Rooms 1 & 2 a combination butcher, cobbler, wood turning business.
Rooms 3 & 4 - a tavern
Rooms 5 & 6 - a combinations wine and pipe shop.
ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION: Building 1's original construction consisted of three ground floor (Rooms 1, 3, and 5). The original building is indicated by the bonded walls surrounding rooms 1, 3,& 5. since the outer load baring walls were one and one-half bricks wide, the three rooms had second floor rooms. This is also indicated by the wood framing of the stair wells found in rooms 3 and 5. The wood door sills of 5 of the door ways are in situ. In the original construction of the the two-story brick building with three ground rooms, the roof had to span from from to back for the interior walls, being only one brick wide were not the major load-bearing walls.
ADDITION: Some time after the construction of the original two-story building had an addition added consisting of three larger ground rooms and second floor rooms above them. The addition is indicated by the walls abutting against the walls of the original construction. In the the addition, both the exterior and interior walls were constructed with one and one-half bricks. Because of the length of the rooms -- ca. 24 ft, the roof would have been three gabled going from left to right. When the addition was made, the roof of the original construction was probably removed and a common three gabled roof went from front to back on the building.
|Note the bonded walls, abutted walls, stair wells, and in situ door sills.|
|Distribution of artifacts in Building 1.
|Building 4/5 Complex -- (click here for a larger plan of Building 4/5)shows the
settlement pattern found throughout Port Royal. Has an original construction which was added on through time. The
different building have back to back fireplaces. Cisterns are usually shared by two or more lots. Hearths are places
at the back of the lot and are occasionally joined to the main building by adding additional room. Room 3 and 7
joined the fireplace of Building 5 to the main structure. Rooms 3 and 4, had one brick wide walls and would thus
only be one story in height. Room 5, is a large, un-roofed work area called a yard. A toilet closet was placed
in the northwest corner of the yard, and a cistern was located in the southeast corner of the yard. Yards were
multipurpose area. It is known from associated artifacts that food processing took place there as well as hair
cuts for the occupants or customers.
Original Construction: Rooms 1 & 2 as indicated by the bonded walls. The larger Room 1 had a plaster floor. Room 2 had a herringbone pattern brick floor and the in situ wood floor frames of a stair well that led to the second floor. Two story construction is also indicated by the one and one-half brick wide exterior walls. The interior wall was one brick wide. The roof would have gone from front to back.
Addition: As indicated by the abutting wall, the fireplace at the back of the lot was joined to the main structure by constructing Rooms 3 and 4. The Yard may have been paved with the unique brick pattern when the hearth was connected to the main structure.
Building 4, a one-story, cheaply constructed, two tenement building was built onto the east, exterior wall of Building 5. The interior wall separating the two halves of Building 4 is only one-half brick wide, while the three exterior walls are one brick wide. Building 4 does not have its own, separate west, exterior wall. This strongly suggests that Building 4 belonged to the owner of Building 5, otherwise, a separate exterior wall would have been constructed. At the time of the earthquake both front rooms of the building had herringbone pattern brick floors, but is it known that Room 4b originally had a plaster floor that was covered with fallen ceiling plaster which was left in place and covered by the brick floor.
Building 4 is unique in that it was rammed by a ship during the earthquake, skewing the brick floor and shoving the back into the back yard.
|Building 3 -- An example of an interrupted sill earthfast building.
A cheaply constructed building built for short-term use.
Room 1 had a plaster floor, Room 2, which is probably a small yard, had a consolidated sand floor, and the area around what is called Room 3 was paved with brick and probably represents a hearth area. Probably only Rooms 1 and 4 were covered by a roof.
The earthquake badly jumbled the northeastern side of the building.