Introduction to Ceramics
FOODWAYS: The whole interrelated system of food conceptualization, procurement, distribution, preservation, preparation and consumption shared by all members of a particular group.
Concept defined by Jay Anderson.
Any change in any aspect of the foodways will be reflected in other areas of the culture
Presence + or - is determined by four factors:
4. Social Status
Lewis Binford -- defines 3 levels of function
1. Technomic function -- strictly utilitarian and relates to the technology of the culture. ex. candle for lighting, plate for eating
2. Socio-technic function -- involves use in a social rather than a technological way. ex. candle for a formal dinner, plate for display.
3. Ideo-technic function --- use of artifacts in a religious or ideological context. ex. votive candle, communion plate
An artifact in different setting can be one, two or all three.
Foodways: If this can be seen in the archaeological record, what are its implications? Used by James Deetz in his identification of three periods in New England.
James Deetz, on looking at the historic archaeology of English colonial sites in New England sees three periods of Anglo-American Cultural development each with its own distinct ceramic assemblage.
I. Yeoman or Stuart Period 1620-1660
This is a rural puritan, medieval society of transplanted Englishmen. conservative, Folk culture.
Charles I, beheaded in 1649,
Cromwell virtual dictator from 1653-1658.
Ceramics poorly integrated into foodways.
Ceramics (stoneware) present played major role in dairying. Ceramics almost exclusively served in a technomic function.
Delft, Slipware most common decorated types.
II. Anglo-America. 1660-1760
2nd generation, not born in England. Less English than were at start of Period I. Start of the North American settlers going their own way and starting something different than what they brought with them from England/Scotland/Ireland.
1660 Restoration of Charles II.
Increased trade and contact with England. Ceramics becoming much more common, with some decorative plates, such as Blue Dash Chargers serving a sociotechnic role for display and not use.
Delft and Slipware continue, with White Salt Glazed Stoneware plates and Whieldon colored glaze wares coming in toward end of period (1740-45)
III. Georgian. 1760-1835
Characterized by the bilateral symmetry of the architecture.
General expressions of order, control and balance.
Complete incorporation of ceramics into foodways, with complete place setting, one to one relationships with individuals.
Creamware, Pearlware and Whiteware characteristic of the period.