EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH HOUSEHOLD TABLEWARE

PERIOD I

PERIOD II

PERIOD II

PERIOD III

PERIOD IV

PERIOD V

PERIOD VI

(pre 1600)

(1600-1740)

Tradewares

(1740-1765)

(1765-1770)

(1770-1820)

(1820s-1900s)


PERIOD VI: 1820s - 1900s

WHITEWARE

  • 1813-1900, predominant 1820-1900; replaced creamware ca. 1820

  • refined white earthenware with a clear glaze that lacks the greenish and yellowish tints of creamware and the bluish and greenish blue cast seen in pearlware (although slight bluish puddling often appears in vessel crevices)


    - 'finger-painted' polychrome slip decoration, ca.
    1820-1900 (also occurs on creamware and
    pearlware)

    - flow blue decoration, 1820-1900 (a purposely
    blurred transfer-printing technique)

    - engine turned/decorated, ca. 1820-1900 (before
    firing, vessels are mechanically turned on a lathe
    to impart an incised design); usually flat wares
    (plates, saucers, etc.)






- spongeware, developed ca. 1830; color is
daubed onto the wares with either cut sponges,
brushes, or pieces of cloth (also occurs on
pearlware); often the sponge technique (shown
on the rim in the example) was used in
combination with hand painting (seen here in the
plate's center)

 

(a) IRONSTONE (also known as Stone China)

  • ca.1800-1840 (most produced prior to 1830s)

  • a hard, dense body and clear glaze; mostly heavily decorated, commonly combining painting/enameling with printing

  • produced to take the place of Chinese porcelain; decoration for early period was usually Chinese style

  • often difficult to distinguish from whiteware in archaeological collections (should be seen as a variety of whiteware)


(b) WHITE GRANITE CHINA

  • 1845-present; imported to America by 1840s

  • evolved out of ironstone and stone china; white granite is a classification used to avoid confusion with the highly decorated stone china or early ironstone

(c) LATER 20TH-CENTURY WHITEWARE

  • narrow, annular rings (blue, red, green, and other colors), especially on vessel rims and at the edge of bowl depressions

  • gold-gilded and stamped decoration

WHITE PORCELLANEOUS WARE

  • made from ca. 1820

  • totally vitrified (non-porous) dense body similar to English porcelain but dense and not translucent; semi-glossy clear glaze; undecorated or hand painted in monochrome (cobalt blue) under the glaze; polychrome palette and gilding over the glaze; transfer printing; sprigging; molded forms

  • fine table/tea wares, toiletry wares

 

YELLOW WARE
(English and American)

  • 1820s - 1900; made in America (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vermont, Ohio) from the 1840s; peak of production in the 1860s-1870s

  • refined earthenware body turned yellow due to impurities in the clay; American yellow ware made with a clearer alkaline glaze (made to replace porous and fragile American redware)


    - undecorated yellow ware, 1830s
    - annular banded and mocha decoration, 1840s
    - coarse, heavy yellow ware, cream/buff to rich
    canary yellow, 1850s-1870s
    - pressed or molded, scenes and floral decoration,
    ca. 1860-1900

  • popular for kitchen/utility wares



AMERICAN STONEWARE

  • made from early 1800s when stoneware techniques became available in the United States

  • often decorated with slip on surfaces; clear alkaline-glazed exteriors

  • kitchen/utility wares (jugs, large crocks, storage containers)


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