HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Anthropology 607
Fall 2012
INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Donny L. Hamilton
OFFICE: Room 102B Conservation Research Lab, Anthropology Building
PHONE: 845-6355
E-mail: dlhamilton@tamu.edu

CLASS HOURS Wednesday, 9:20-12:20 in Room 102, Anthropology Building
OFFICE HOURS: 2-4 A.M. Monday and Wednesday or by appointment

Subject to revisions and refinements, which will be posted on the on-line syllabus at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/607/607syl.htm

Use the on-line syllabus for the latest web links and reading assignments.

Course Objectives:
The objective of any archaeological excavation is to interpret the site and put it into a cultural context. The ways of interpreting a site are varied, but all require that the researcher be familiar with the history of the period, the documentary records, the material culture of the period, the archaeological data, and the excavation-recording procedures. Over the years I have found that students do not have experience analyzing a body of material culture and do not know how incorporate this information with the relevant historical documents. Archaeological research is sometimes done independently, but in most instances, it is done in conjunction with other researchers. During this course, we will be investigating selective, major themes in historical archaeology. The emphasis will be on 17th-19th-century British archaeology in the Americas. In order to best demonstrate the on-going process of site interpretation, many of the topics discussed will revolve around the analysis of material culture.

The site of Port Royal , Jamaica , which was founded in 1655, sank in an earthquake in 1692, and continues as a small town today will be a basic reference. All the students will select research topics that deal in someway with the analysis of some specific material culture from an archaeological site with provenience data. For many, the analysis will be on some body of data from Port Royal , since many of the artifacts are available for study and the databases with provenience and basic identifications are available. If a student has access to material from other sites, they can use that as well.  

The various processes by which historical archaeologist reconstruct and interpret excavated sites will be discussed in assigned seminar sessions, with all the students taking part. We will look closely at categories of archaeological features and material culture that are most commonly encountered, as well as the historic documents that are most commonly used in archaeological interpretations. Throughout the course, we will take into consideration the interplay between the written documents and the archaeological record and the value of each in the final analysis.

 

Required Papers: Personal Genealogy Search, Historic Port Royal Document Transcription - Will, Inventory, Grantor’s Record.  Artifact Description (Data Sheet.  Consult the recent journal articles, various material culture studies and probate record studies for ideas. Select your topics as soon as possible. Some of the papers may be served on the NAP Port Royal or other Internet site. Assigned seminar reports are usually delivered along with any handouts or aids via PowerPoint on a laptop. 

Good examples can be found on the Internet on the Plymouth , Massachusetts : Archival Project web site : http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home2.html   –text only version of above page (loads quicker) http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home3.html
 
Selected References:
Studies in Material Culture Research, Karlis Karklins, editor, The Society for Historical Archaeology.
Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, David R.;
Brauner, compiler, A Reader for Historical Archaeology, The Society for Historical Archaeology.

The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony, by James Deetz and
Patricia Scott Deetz, 2000, W.H. Freeman Co.
Historical Archaeology journals 1967-2000.The SHA journals are searchable on the web at:<http://www.sha.org/verity.cfm> .Each file is downloadable as a PDF file.
A Selected Bibliography of Historical Artifacts: c. 1760-1920, Mary Margaret Smith and Heinz Pyszczyk, Archaeological Survey of Alberta , Manuscript Series, No. 11. Alberta Culturalism, Historical Resources Division.
The Merchants of Port Royal, Claypole
Port Royal, Jamaica by Michael Pawson and David Buisseret, 2000, UWI Press
French Colonial Archaeology at Old Mobile: Selected Studies, Gregory A. Waselkov, editor, Historical Archaeology 36:1:2002.
The Archaeology of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century British Colonization in the Caribbean Unites States and Canada, Henry M. Miller, D.L. Hamilton, Nicholas Honerkamp, Steven R. Pendery, Peter E. Pope, and James A. Tuck, Editors, Guides to Historical Archaeological Literature.

Useful Internet Sites
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/portroyal/
Plymouth, Massachusetts: Archival Project
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/users/deetz/Plymouth/
Glossary of Terms
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/GLOSSARY.htm
Seminar Reports:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/seminar.htmlPlymouth Probate Records:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/probates.html
Selected Wills:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/wills.html
Vernacular House Forms:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/folkhouse.htm
Deetz, Chpt. 5, pp. 92-117, I Would Have the Howse Stronger in Timber
Can also be found on the Internet at:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/house.html
Material Culture of Plymouth
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/material.html
Sexual Misconduct:
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/Plymouth/Lauria2.html

Jamestown Discovery
http://www.apva.org/re, Number 4.

Plymouth, Massachussetts Archival:  http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home2.html
or text only version of above page (loads quicker) http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home3.html


HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
Anthropology 607
Fall 2012

TENTATIVE -- COURSE SCHEDULE
SUBJECT TO CHANGE DEPENDING ON STUDENT ENROLLMENT

Week I, August 29, Introduction. Goals, Resources, Term Paper, Assignments

Week 2, September 5,  Field Excavations.
Method & Theory in Historical Archaeology
All read, Stanley South, 1976,
The Brunswick Pattern of Refuse Disposal pp. 47-80
The Carolina Artifact Pattern pp. 83-138
The Frontier Artifact Pattern, pp. 141-163
Methodological Considerations, pp. 277-314

Week 3, Sept. 12, Field archaeology excavations
For week 3, Each person find a site report and look in detail at how they set the grid up, how provenience of the recovered artifacts was maintained in time and space -- horizontally and vertically, and what was the procedure for numbering artifacts. Each student will present the field excavation and documentation procedures for a site that they think are good and worthy of emulating.
The procedures utilized at Port Royal, Jamaica will be presented.
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/portroyal/

What you ultimately do or can do depends on what you do in the field.
Chapter 8, Archaeological Fieldwork: Field and Laboratory in Historical Archaeology by Orser & Fagan.
Introduction to Port Royal, Excavations, History, Material culture, PowerPoint presentation by Hamilton

We will be looking at the site, the excavation techniques, catalogue system, architecture, material culture, subsistence, etc. Used as a starting point for our study of 17th-century English archaeology and architectural features.

Week 4, September 19, Documentary Evidence: Will, Inventories, Deeds, Land Plats, Diaries, Period accounts,
Genealogy in Historical Archaeology
Required Genealogy Paper 1:
Prior to Week 4, go to Evans Library and find one of your ancestors in the 1850-1930 US Census (the earlier the better) and print the page. Go to the Internet and download the pedigree chart at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/genealogy/pedchart.htm
and the family group record at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/genealogy/fgr.htm
The family group record is provided to add additional information on the entire family of each generation. A separate family group record is used for each generation.
Fill out the charts as well as you can, starting with yourself. Then go to one of the following web sites and conduct a search to see if you can find any connections to any of the names in your family. 

 

Basic Genealogy Resources
Consult Ancestry.com - http://search.ancestry.com/search


FamilySearch.com - Church of Latter Day Saints - http://www.familysearch.org/


HeritageQuest.com – accessible through Evans Library


Family Tree Maker - http://www.familytreemaker.com – to record your data.

Follow out any leads you find and print out each lead. You are more likely to find a connection the further back in your genealogy you can go, such as your great grandparents or great, great grandparents. Using the data on your chart and the US Census, find a minimum of three more records such as a marriage record, death record, probate records, deed record on the same relative.

Try to find one of your ancestors in a US Census, 1850 - 1940. If you cannot find any of your own ancestors, then use someone that is somehow related -- such as someone with the same surname in the same locality as your relatives. If necessary, use a historic figure as a last resort. Write a report on your search and findings. Point out any revelations or insights the research contributed to your understanding of your family and the relevance of genealogy to historic research.

If you find any hits on your searches on the Internet, you can arrange with me to search the files of ancestry.com for material that is available in their databases which require membership.   All the images of the US Censuses are available as well as many state and county records Also as a TAMU student you have access to Heritage Quest which has all the censuses and many family histories and historic documents as well.

The1940 US Census is the latest to be released. If your family is from Texas or the South, the TAMU Evans Library has all the census records for Texas and many of the southern states. Also, the Carnegie Library in Bryan has many of the census records. This exercise is intended to expose you to the basic documents used in genealogical research that is conducted when one excavates a historic site. This Genealogy Exercise is due on October 1, 2012.

Week 5, September 26, Documentary Evidence: Will, Inventories, Deeds, Land Plats, Diaries, Period accounts,

Film: Genealogy by Genetics
Archaeological Examples -  All Read: Beaudry 1988: Chpts 1, 4, & 27
Benes, pp. 5-16
Little, pp. 1-6
Simon Benning, Pewterer of Port Royal, Hamilton in Little, pp. 39-53
These readings in Beaudry, Benes, and Little are intended to help you with the assigned transcription that will be presented on November 19, 2012. A folder of transcription aids is kept near the reader.

Required Transcription Paper 2: This week each student will present his/her report on the transcription of at least three 17th-century documents dealing with Port Royal or your approved topic. The extant wills, inventories, and patent records from the Jamaica Archives and Public Record Office are avaliable on microfilm. Many of the Port Royal will/inventory transcriptions are served on the NAP Internet. Possible transcriptions include a matched will and inventory from the same person or family. If all the documents are not for the same person, then they must be related (not necessarily by blood) in some way. (Ex. husband and wife, father and son, godfather, business partner, executor of will, person of same trade, etc.) Alternatively, the documents can deal with material culture, status indicators, estate distribution. A list will be posted of all the wills and inventories that have been transcribed, so you will be required to select one that has not been done. However, you may make use of the transcribed documents. Most of the inventories from Port Royal in Vol. 3 have been transcribed, but there are some from elsewhere in Jamaica . Check the list before you start transcribing. If your interests are in New England , we have the Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Wills and Inventories that can be used for comparative studies. Transcription paper is due October 15, 2012.

Of course, the wills, inventories, plats, grantors records and other documents will be transcribed, but in addition, you will compare the data presented in each, analyzing how this data contributes to our interpretation of the archaeological record. There are a few inventories that consist of just a few sentences; please select one that has an itemized list. You must include in the transcription paper the complete reference for the transcribed documents (Inventory, Vol. #, folio #, Public Records Office; Will, Vol. #, folio #, Jamaica Archives). Points will be deducted if each transcribed document is not properly referenced. A copy of the transcription paper on computer disk has to be turned in. If you are using Apple, a MAC, or a word processing package other than Word or Word Perfect, please see me about a format I can use. I will be explaining how to use the indices and the microfilm that we have. Transcription aids and a list of terms will be made available. The microfilm/fiche reading facilities are maintained on campus in Room 103 on the first floor of the Anthropology Building . Each student is responsible for keeping the microfiche sleeves organized and take care that none of the individual frames fall out.

Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
Additional Internet aids useful for conducting genealogical research
Ancestry.com - http://www.ancestry.com/search/main.htmFamilySearch.com - Church of Latter Day Saints - http://www.familysearch.org/
Family Tree Maker - http://www.familytreemaker.com/

An 19-th/20th-century example of the genealogical research trail of one family
"Following the Written Record Trail" and Genealogical Research - an example - The Ross-Hamilton Records:
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/ross/census.htm
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/ross/ross-inv.htm
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/ross/admission.htm
                                                           
Week 6. October 3, MATERIAL CULTURE STUDIES

Studies in Material Culture Research, Karlis Karklins, editor, The Society for Historical Archaeology.
Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, David R.;
Brauner, compiler, A Reader for Historical Archaeology, The Society for Historical Archaeology
Datasheets 1-24, Finds Research Group 700-1700

Required Paper 3.   Using the three sources above, each student is to select an artifact or artifact category and write an analysis of the artifact, documenting it thoroughly, with photosgraphs, drawings, and interpretations.  Paper due October 29, 2012.

CERAMICS IN HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
17th-Century Ceramics found on English sites.
Early to Mid-18th-Century English Ceramics -- the onslaught of English manufactured ceramics.
What do archaeologists do with the ceramics?
Deetz, 1977, chpt. 3
Noel-Hume, 1976, all chpts. on Eng. ceramics
Price 1976
Thompson et. al, 1984
Beaudry, Chpts. 2, 5, 6, & 15
Deetz in Quimby, 1973, pp. 105-139
Brown in Quimby, 1973, pp. 41-74
Stone et. al. in Quimby, 1973, pp. 105-139
Noel-Hume in Quimby, 1973, pp. 217-254
Pittman in Reinhart, 1993, pp. 357-369
Pogue in Reinhart, 1993, pp. 371-392
Port Royal Ceramic typology
Donachie, Madeleine, 2001  Household Ceramics at Port Royal, Jamaica, 1655-1692: The Building 4/5 Assemblage.  Doctoral Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Franklin, Marianne, 1992  Wrought-Iron Hand Tools in Port Royal, Jamaica: A Study Based Upon a Collection of the Tools Recovered from Archaeological Excavations and Listed in the Probate Records of Colonial Port Royal, c. 1692.   Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Fox, Georgia Lynn, 1998  The Study of the Kaolin Clay Tobacco Pipe Collection from the Seventeenth-Century Archaeological Site of Port Royal, Jamaica.  Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
Ceramic Analyses, Dating and Computer Applications
Otto in Schuyler, 1980, chpt. 1
Otto in South, 1977, pp. 91-110
South 1976, chpt. 8. How applicable to 17th century.
South in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 17, pp. 68-82
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
Post-Medieval Pottery 1650-1800 by Jo Draper
Tin-glazed earthenware:
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/PROJECTS/PR-project/tinglaze/tin-glaze.htm
Chamber Pots:
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/portroyl/chamber/
Borderware:
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/PROJECTS/PR-project/border/index.htm
Silpware:
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/PROJECTS/PR-project/slipware/slip-home.html

Week 7, October 10, Continue Ceramics.
Carlson, Ceramic dating article
Computers in Historical Archaeology
d-Base, Field Mapping, Computer Assisted Drafting (CAD), Surfer
frame capture, Scanning, etc

Week 8, October 17, Smoking Pipes and other Material Culture
Pipes
Noel-Hume, 1976, pp. 296-312
Harrington in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 15
Binford in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 16
Port Royal Papers,
Fox Dissertation - Kaolin Pipes, BAR series
Heiditke, thesis - Jamaica Red Pipes, Ms.
Heidtke, Kenan
1992  Jamaican Red Clay Pipes.  Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station
Barclay Series on Pipes
Martin, 1989, pp. 1-26 (HA 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2Ward, Ed 1700
Guild Crafts: Pewterer, Braziers, Cobblers, Tanners, Goldsmiths, Doctors, and other craftsmen/specialists in the colonies. Read:
Museum of London Book on Pewter
Smith -- Dissertation on Weights & Measures
Guild Internet Site: -- to be provided later
Gotelipe-Miller, Shirley, 1990  Pewter and Pewterers from Port Royal, Jamaica: Flatware before 1692.  Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University.

Week 9, October 24, Computers in Archaeology: AutoCAD, Surfer, PhotoModeler, databases
Required Artifact Distribution Paper: Each student will be take on an artifact distribution analysis from the PR data and present it in a Surfer contour map superimposed on a Port Royal excavation plan. Alternatively the same can be done for another site as long as there is provenience data, a suitable map of the site where X, Y, Z, coordinates can be plotted.
                                                           
WEEK 10, October 31, Subsistence Studies in Historical Archaeology
Reading assignments to be given later. We will include Port Royal , 1554 Plate Fleet and the Belle.
Ethnic Archaeology
Read Chapter 10, The Archaeology of Groups, in Historical Archaeology by Orser and Fagan.
Sugar, Cotton, and Slaves
Drax Hall, Armstrong
New Seville, Armstrong
Newton Plantation, Handler
Slaves at Port Royal and Jamaica
American Archaeology, Vol. 6, #1, page 40-51.
Ethnicity
Schuyler, 1980
Singleton, chpts., 5, 8, 11
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation

WEEK 11, November 7, New Trends in Historical Archaeology.
Group topics to be discussed taken from last two years of Historical Archaeology and International Journal of Historical Archaeology, Post-Medieval Archaeology.

WEEK 12, November 14, New Trends in Historical Archaeology. Turn in Artifact distribution study.
Gender Studies, The Archaeology of Gender by Diana diZerega Wall
Wealth, The Archaeology of Wealth, Consumer Behavior in English America, James G. Gibb
Trussel, Timothy D.2004  Artifacts of Ambition: How the 17th-century Middle Class at Port Royal, Jamaica, Foreshadowed the Consumer Revolution.
Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.
Individuality, The Materiality of Individuality, Carolyn L. White (ed.)
and the Individual

WEEK 13, November 21, Seminar Report and artifact distribution study. Turn in Artifact distribution study.
Student presentation of papers as prepared as a htm files read to be served on the Internet and delivered via laptop computer/projector. Input of all students on all papers is expected. Distribution paper is due December 3, 2012.

WEEK 14 November 28, Paper Report 
Student presentation of paper. Input of all students on all papers is expected

WEEK 15 December 5, Reading Day No Class 

NOTE: No research paper dealing with any the archaeological data from Port Royal can be published without written permission of Dr. Hamilton. If you want to publish something independently on Port Royal , be sure and work out the details with Dr. Hamilton before submitting the article.

All papers are due by December 3, 2012, if not already submitted.
Each student's grade will be based on attendance, class participation, the presentation of assigned seminar reports, one historic documents transcription, one artifact analysis, and a term paper on an approved topic. Papers dealing with some aspect of Port Royal is encouraged.

Personal Genealogy Search - 15%
Transcription paper - 15%
Artifact Analysis - 20%
Artifact Distribution study - 30%
Assigned seminar reports and class participation - 20%.                                                     

Excessive absences, e.g. more than 2 classes -                                                                              – which in this class is equal to 6 classes -- will result in a lowering of the student's grade unless there is a valid excuse.
NO INCOMPLETES WILL BE GIVEN.
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Plagiarism
The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," I mean all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy the handouts, unless I expressly grant permission.

As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., which belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated.

If you have any questions regarding plagiarism, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty."

The Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA )
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the office of Support Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B-116 of Cain Hall. The phone number is 845-1637.

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The Aggie Code of Honor is an effort to unify the aims of all Texas A&M men and women toward a high code of ethics and personal dignity. For most, living under this code will be no problem, as it asks nothing of a person that is beyond reason. It only calls for honesty and integrity, characteristics that Aggies have always exemplified.

The Aggie Code of Honor functions as a symbol to all Aggies, promoting understanding and loyalty to truth and confidence in each other.
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Attendance Policy and Grading Scale Examples
Attendance Policy:
“The University views class attendance as the responsibility of an individual student. Attendance is essential to complete the course successfully. University rules related to excused and unexcused absences are located on-line at http://student-rules.tamu.edu/rule07."

Example Grading Scales:
Standard Letter Grading Scale:
A= 90-100     B = 80-89      C = 70-79       D = 60-69       F = <60