BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PRECLASSICAL SEAFARING



This bibliography was begun by G.F. Bass and his students in the mid-1960s in a seminar on the subject at the University of Pennsylvania. At that time there were virtually no general books such as L. Casson's Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World, L. Basch's Le musée imaginaire de la marine antique, or, now, S. Wachsmann's Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Late Bronze Age Levant. Nor were there B. Landström's books on ancient ships, nor the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology (IJNA) or Tropis, although Mariners' Mirror published articles on early watercraft. This required using primary sources for discussions in that and subsequent seminars, both at the University of Pennsylvania and at Texas A&M University, and the bibliography grew annually, although in recent years there has been no attempt to list the many articles in IJNA nor the myriad articles being published on Bronze Age trade. A.J. Parker, Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean & the Roman Provinces (BAR International Series 580, 1992) has made it unnecessary to add references to ancient wrecks to this list. It is clear that some subjects were discussed in greater detail, and more often, than others. It would be worthwhile, however, to update this bibliography annually, and thus corrections and additions will be welcome; the abbreviations used are generally those listed in the American Journal of Archaeology 95 (1991) 4-16, but note especially that here MM = Mariners' Mirror. Please send entries to gfbass@tamu.edu.

 

I. GENERAL

1. A. Amstead, A Dictionary of Sea Terms (Glasgow 1956).

2. Romola and R.C. Anderson, The Sailing Ship, Six Thousand Years of History (New York 1963).

3. L. Basch, Le musée imaginaire de la marine antique(Athens 1987)

4. G.F. Bass, ed., A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology (New York and London 1972).

5. J.L. Bintliff, Natural Environment & Human Settlement in Prehistoric Greece, B.A.R. Supplementary Series 28 (1977)

6. Lionel Casson, The Ancient Mariners (1959; 2d ed., Princeton 1991).

7. -------------, Illustrated History of Ships and Boats (New York 1964).

8. -------------, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton 1971).

9. C.-M. de Graeve, The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000-500 B.C.) Leuven 1981).

10. Adrian Digby, "Boats and Ships,"in A History of Technology I (Oxford 1954) 730-743.

11. James Hornell, Water Transport: Origins and Early Evolution (Cambridge 1946; reprint, Newton Abbot 1970).

12. D. Jones, Boats (University of Texas, Austin 1995).

13. D. Jones, A Glossary of Ancient Egyptian Nautical Titles and Terms (London and New York 1988).

14. H.J. Kantor, "The Relative Chronology of Egypt and its Foreign Correlations Before the First Intermediate Period," in R. Ehrich, ed., Chronologies in Old World Archaeology I (3rd ed., Chicago & London 1992) 3-21.

15. Björn Landström, The Ship (London and New York 1961)

16. J.S. Morrison and R.T. Williams, Greek Oared Ships 900-322 B.C. (Cambridge 1968).

17. K. Muckelroy, Archaeology Under Water, An Atlas of the World's Submerged Sites (New York and London 1980).

18. L.K. Stager, "The Periodization of Palestine from Neolithic through Early Bronze Times," in R. Erich Chronologies in Old World Archaeology I (3rd ed., 1992)22-41.

19. P. Throckmorton, The Sea Remembers: Shipwrecks and Archaeology (New York 1987).

20. Cecil Torr, Ancient Ships (repr., Chicago 1964).

21. Steve Vinson, Egyptian Boats and Ships (Shire Egyptology 1994).

22. S. Wachsmann, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Late Bronze Age Levant (Texas A&M University Press 1977).

23. K. Westerberg, Cypriote Ships from the Bronze Age to ca. 500 B.C. (Gothenburg 1983).



II. FOURTH-MILLENNIUM B.C. BOAT MODELS

1. G. Brunton and G. Caton-Thompson, The Badarian Civilization (BSAE 46 [1928]). Ch. 17, sect. 130, p. 61, pl. 54, nos. 18-20, and pl. 58, no. 5.

2. L. Casson, Ancient Mariners, p. 2, pl. 1A.

3. W.M.F. Petrie, Prehistoric Egypt (BSAE 31 [1920]) p. 8, pl. 7, p. 21, pl. 24, Amratian models from Naqada.

4. ------------- and J. E. Quibel, Naqada and allas (BSAE I [1896]) p. 41, pl. 36, nos. 80 and 81.

5. Seton Lloyd and F. Safar, "Eridu," Sumer 4 no. 2 (1948) p. 18, pl. 5.

6. Thomas S. Strasser, "The Boat Models from Eridu: Sailing or Spinning During the 'Ubaid Period?" Antiquity 70 (1996) 920-925.

7. S. Vinson, Boats of Egypt Before the Old Kingdom (M.A. thesis, Texas A&M University 1987).



III. AMRATIAN BOATS SCRATCHED OR PAINTED ON POTTERY

1. E.J. Baumgartel, The Cultures of Prehistoric Egypt (London 1947) 71, fig. 21.

2. W.M.F. Petrie, Prehistoric Egypt (BSAE 31 [1920])15, pl. 15 no. 49.

 

IV. ROCK PICTURES OF BOATS IN THE EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT

1. W. Helck, Die Beziehungen Ägyptens zu Vorderasien im 3 und 2 Jahrtausend von Chr. V (Weisbaden 1962).

2. W. Kaiser, "Stand und Probleme der ägyptischer Vorgeschichts Forschung," ZÄS 81 (1956).

3. S. Vinson, Boats of Egypt Before the Old Kingdom (M.A. thesis, Texas A&M 1987).

4. H. A. Winkler, The Rock Drawings of Southern Upper Egypt I and II (London 1938-1939).

 

V. EARLY GERZEAN BOATS PAINTED ON POTTERY AND CLOTH

1. A.J. Arkell, "Early Shipping in Egypt," Antiquity 33 (1959) 52-53.

2. W.F. Edgerton, "Ancient Egyptian Ships and Shipping," AJSL 39 (1923) 109-135.

3. W.C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt I (New York 1953) 22, fig. 14.

4. P. E. Newberry, "The Petty Kingdom of the Harpoon and Egypt's Earliest Mediterranean Port," AnnLiv 1 (1908) 17-22.

5. -----------------, "Some Cults of Prehistoric Egypt" AnnLiv 5 (1913) 132-136.

6. W.M.F. Petrie, Prehistoric Egypt (BASE 31, 1920) 16-22.

7. S. Vinson, Boats of Egypt Before the Old Kingdom (M.A. thesis, Texas A&M University 1987).

8. Cf. H.W. Muller, Alt-aegyptische Malerei... (Berlin, 1959) pl. 2, showing an Egyptian Predynastic ship on cloth.

 

VI. LATE GERZEAN "NAVAL BATTLE" ON THE GEBEL-EL-ARAK KNIFE

1. G.Bénédite, "Le couteau de Gebel-el-'Arak," MonPiot 22 (1916) 1-34.

2. H. Frankfort, Studies in Early Pottery of the Near East I. Mesopotamia, Syria, and Egypt and their Earliest Interrelations (Royal Anthropological Institute: Occasional Papers, no. 6, London 1924) 118-124, 138-142.

3. 3. H.J. Kantor, "The Final Phase of Predynastic Culture" JNES 3 (1944) 110-36.

4. P.P. Vertesalji, "Le manche de couteau de Gebel el-'Arak dans let contexte des relations entre la Mésopotamie et l'Égypte," in D Charpin and F. Joannès, eds., La circulation des biens, des personnes et des idées dans le Proche-Orient ancien (Paris 1992) 29-41.

5. S. Vinson, Boats of Egypt Before the Old Kingdom (M.A. thesis, Texas A&M University 1987).

6. B. Williams and T.J. Logan, "The Metropolitan Museum Knife Handle and Aspects of Pharonic Imagery Before Narmer," JNES 46 (1987) 245-85.



VII. LATE GERZEAN TOMB-PAINTINGS OF "NAVAL BATTLES AT

HIERAKONPOLIS"

1. H. Case and J.C. Payne, "Tomb 100: The Decorated Tomb at Hierakonpolis," JEA 48 (1962) 5-18, and pl. I.

2. H.J. Kantor, "The Final Phase of Predynastic Culture," JNES 3 (1944) 110-36.

3. J.E. Quibell and F.W. Green, Hierakonpolis II (London 1902).



VIII. URUK AND JEMDET NASR BOATS

1. H. Frankfort, Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region (Chicago, 1955) 35-37, with pls. 27, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 46, 47, 49, 52, 84, 85.

2. C.L. Wooley, Excavations at Ur vols. II, III, X.

 

IX. SUMERIAN BOATS, SHIPS AND SEAFARING

1. A. Koester, Schiffährt und Handelsverkehr des östlicher Mittlemeeres in 3. und 2. Jahrtausund v. Chr. (Leipzig 1924).

2. J. Oates, T.E. Davidson, D. Kamilli, and H. McKerrell, "Seafaring Merchants of Ur?" Antiquity 51 (1977) 221.

3. I.M. Price, "Transportation by Water in Early Babylonia," AJSL 40 (1923-1924) 111-116.

4. C. Qualls, Boats of Mesopotamia Before 2000 B.C. (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University 1981).

5. A. Salonen, "Toward an Understanding of the Sumerian Shipbuilding Text AO 5673 with respect to Text VAT 7035," Studia Orientalia 8 no. 3 (1938).

6. --------, "Die Wasserfahrzeuge in Babylonien," Studia Orientalia 8, pt. 4 (Helsinki 1939). Has full bibliography.

7. Note on Salonen by L. Casson in MM 53 (1967) 286-88.



X. THIRD MILLENNIUM B.C. INDUS CIVILIZATION: SHIPPING AND HARBORS

1. D.P. Agrawal, Archaeology of India (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies 46, 1982).

2. Shashi Asthana, History and Archaeology of India's Contact with Other Countries (Delhi 1976).

3. G.F. Dales, "New Investigations at Mohenjo-Daro," Archaeology 18, pt. 2 (1965) 145-150. Terracotta object with boat depicted in relief.

4. H. Huglund, "Dilmun and the Sealand," Northern Akkadian Project Reports 2 (1989) on order.

5. S.N. Kramer, "The Indus Civilization and Dilmun, The Sumerian Paradise Lost," Expedition 6 no. 3 (1964) 44-52.

6. -----------, "Dilmun, Quest for Paradise," Antiquity 37 (1963).

7. L.S. Leshnik, "The Harrappan 'Port' at Lothal: Another View," American Anthropologist 70 (1968) 911-922.

8. E.J.H. Mackay, Further Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro (New Delhi 1936) vol. II, pl. 69.4 and 89 A.

9. R.K. Mookergji, Indian Shipping: A History the Sea-Borne Trade and Maritime activity of the Indians from the Earliest Times (Bombay and New York 1912).

10. S. Pandaya, "Lothal Dockyard Hypothesis and Sea Level Changes," Ecology and Archaeology of Western India (1977).

11. G. L. Possehl, "Lothal: A Gateway Settlement of the Harrappan Civilization," in K.A.R. Kennedy and G.L. Possehl, eds., Ecological Backgrounds of South Asian Prehistory (Ithaca 1976) 118-131.

12. ------------------, Ancient Cities of the Indus (Durham 1979).

13. ------------------, Harrappan Civilization (New Delhi 1982).

14. S.R. Rao, "The Excavations at Lothal," Lalit Kala 3-4 (1962) pp. 82-89.

15. --------, "Further Excavations At Lothal," Lalit Kalal 11 (April 1962) 14-30. Diagrams and description of the harbor.

16. --------, "Lothal and West Asia," International Congress of Asian Archaeology (New Delhi, Dec. 1961).

17. --------, "Maturity and Decline of Indus Valley Civilization: Religion and Industry Revealed in Excavations at Lothal - Part II," ILN (1961) 387-389.

18. --------, "New Light on the Indus Valley Civilisation: Seals, Drains, and a Dockyard in New Excavations at Lothal in India," ILN (Feb. 25, 1961) 302-304.

19. --------, "The Oldest Dock in the World," The Onlooker Annual (1960-61).

20. --------, "Shipping and Maritime Trade of the Indus People," Expedition 7 no. 3 (1965) 30-37. Photographs of the harbor, boat models , anchors.

21. --------, Lothal and the Indus Civilization (New York 1973).

22. --------, Lothal, A Harappan Port Town, 2 vols. (New Delhi 1979).

23. V.P. Shah, "Lothal - a Port," Journal of the Oriental Institute 9 (1960) 310-20.

24. K.M. Srivastava, Community Movements in Protohistoric India (Delhi 1979).



XI. Bahrain

1. S.H.A. Al Khalifa, and M. Rice, Bahrain Through the Ages: The Archaeology (London, New York, Sydney & Henley 1986).

2. G. Bibbey, Looking for Dilmun (New York 1969).



XII. WEST COAST OF PERSIAN GULF

1. T. Bertoud, and S. Cleuziou, "Farming Communities of the Oman Peninsula and the Copper of Makkan," JOS 6 (1983)239-46.

2. G. Burkholder, An Arabian Collection: Artifacts from the Eastern Province (Boulder City, NV, 1984).

3. B. de Cardil, R.D. Bell and N.J. Starling, "Excavations at Tawi Sa'id in the Sharqiya," JOS 5 (1979) 61-94.

4. --------, D.B. Doe, and S.P. Roshams, "Excavation and Survey in the Sarquyah, Oman, 1976," JOS 3 (1977) 17-34.

5. K. Frifelt, "Further Evidence of the Third Millennium Town at Bat in Oman," JOS 7 (1985) 89-104.

6. --------, "Evidence for a Third Millennium B.C. Town in Oman," JOS 2 (1976) 57-74.

7. G.F. Hourani, Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times (Beirut 1963).

8. P. Kjaerum, The Stamp and Cylinder Seals (Moesgard, Denmark; Jutland Archaeologicao Society Publ. 1983. [Note: these are 2nd mill. Failaka/Dilmun seals.]

9. D.D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 2 vols. (Greenwood Press, N.Y., 1968).

10. D.T. Potts, The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity (Oxford 1990), 2 vols.



XIII. EARLY DYNASTIC EGYPTIAN BOATS

1. D. O'Connor, "Boat Graves and Pyramid Origins: New Discoveries at Abydos, Egypt," Expedition 33 no. 3 (1991) 5-17.



XIV. OLD KINGDOM EGYPTIAN SMALL BOATS

1. O. Bates, "Ancient Egyptian Fishing," Varia Africana 1 (1917).

2. M.C. Boreux, Études de nautique égyptienne (Mém. de l'Inst. Franc. d'Archéologie Orient. du Caire 50, Cairo 1924).

3. J.H. Breasted, "The Earliest Boats on the Nile," JEA 4 (1917) 174-76 and pls. XXXIII-XXXIV.

4. W.R. Dawson, "Note on the Egyptian Papyrus Boat," JEA 10(1924) 46 and pl. X.

5. G.D. Hornblower, "Reed-floats in Modern Egypt," JEA 17 (1931) 53-54.

6. J. Hornell, Water Transport (Cambridge 1946).

7. L. Keimer, "L'hiéroglyph ," ASAE 43 (1943) 183-89.

8. W.M.F.Petrie, "Egyptian Shipping," Ancient Egypt and the East I & II (March and June, 1933) 1-14, 64-75.

9. Servin, "Les constructions navales sous l'Ancien Empire," ASAE 34 (1934) 163.

10. G. Steindorff, Das Grab des Ti (Leipzig 1913) pl. 58. 133.

 

XV. OLD KINGDOM EGYPTIAN HULLS AND RIGGING

1. A.M. Abubakr and A.Y. Mustafa, "The Funerary Boat of Khufu," Beitrage zür ägyptischen Bauforschung und Altertumskunde 12 (1971) 1-16. Reviewed in IJNA 3 (1974) 349.

2. M. Bietak, "Zur Marine des alten Reiches," in Pyramid Studies and Other Essays Presented to I.E.S. Edwards (London 1988).

3. L. Borchardt et al., Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahu-re' II (Leipzig 1913) 1-28, 133-166.

4. C. Boreux, Études de nautique égyptienne (Mém. de l'Inst. Franc. d'Archéologie Orient. du Caire 50 (Cairo 1925).

5. R. le Baron Bowen, "Raising Sail in 3rd Millennium Egypt," MM 36 (1960) 1-6.

6. L. Casson, Illustrated History of Ships and Boats, 17-23.

7. S. Clarke and R. Engelback, Ancient Egyptian Masonry (Oxford 1930) 34-45.

8. Farouk El-Baz, "Finding a Pharaoh's Funeral Bark," National Geographic 173 no. 4 (April 1988) 512-533.

9. R.O. Faulkner, "Egyptian Seagoing Ships," JEA 26 (1940) 3-9.

10. J. Hornell, Water Transport (Cambridge 1946) 213-229.

11. Nancy Jenkins, The Boat Beneath the Pyramid (New York 1980).

12. Paul Lipke, The Royal Ship of Cheops (BAR International Series 225, 1984).

13. Peter Miller, "Riddle of the Pyramid Boats," National Geographic 173 no. 4 (April 1988) 534-550.

14. G. Steindorff, Das Grab des Ti (Leipzig 1913) for pictures only.

15. C.V. Sølver, "Egyptian Sea-Going Ships, about 2600 B.C.," MM 37 (1961) 24-30.

 

XVI. OLD KINGDOM EGYPTIAN ROWING AND STEERING

1. L. Borchardt, Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahu-re' II (Leipzig 1913).

2. J.H. Breasted, Egyptian Servant Statues (Bollingen Series XIII, Washington 1948) 73-85, pls. 64-66, 68-78. Helmsmen, sailors, lookouts.

3. W.C. Hayes, The Scepter of Egypt I (New York 1953) 99-100, cf. fig. 56.

4. E.D. Jarrett-Bell, "Rowing in the XVIII Dynasty," Ancient Egypt (1930). For comparative purposes.

5. M.G.A. Reisner, Models of Ships and Boats (Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire Cairo 1913) nos. 4798-4796 and 5034-5200.

6. G. Steindorff, Das Grab des Ti (Leipzig 1913) XII, 6.

 

XVII. THIRD MILLENNIUM AEGEAN: EARLY MINOAN, CYCLADIC, AND HELLADIC SHIPPING

1. G.F. Bass, "A Hoard of Trojan and Sumerian Jewelry," AJA 74 (1970) 335-341.

2. ---------, "Troy and Ur: Gold Links Between Two Ancient Capitals," Expedition 8 (1966) 27-39.

3. P.B. Betancourt, "The Maikop Copper Tools and their Relationship to Cretan Metallurgy," AJA 74 (1970) 351- 58.

4. K. Branigen, The Foundations of Palatial Crete (New York 1970).

5. C. Broodbank, "The Longboat and Society in the Cyclades in the Keros-Syros Culture," AJA 93 (1989) 319-337.

6. L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton 1971).

7. Lionel Cohen, "Evidence for the Ram in the Minoan Period," AJA 42 (1938) 487-94.

8. M. Cosmopoulos, "Exchange Networks in Prehistory: the Aegean and the Mediterranean in the Third Millennium B.C., in R. Laffineur and L. Basch, eds., Thalassa: L'égée préhistorique et la mer (Liège 1991).

9. For Dokos wreck, see ENALIA 1 (1989) and following.

10. A. Evans, Palace of Minos at Knossos (London 1921-1935) vol. II, pt. I, 238-252.

11. R.W. Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete (Baltimore 1962) 91-115, figs. 12-16.

12. P.F. Johnston, Ship and Boat Models in Ancient Greece (Annapolis 1981).

13. -------------, "Bronze Age Cycladic Ships: An Overview," Temple University Aegean Symposium 7 (1982) 1-8.

14. V.E.G. Kenna, Cretan Seals (Oxford 1960) 94-95 and pl. 3. Three E.M. three-sided prism seals with ships.

15. S. Marinatos, "La marine créto-mycénienne," BCH 57 (1933) 170-235, pls. 13-18

16. J. Mellaart, "The Royal Treasure of Dorak," ILN (Nov. 1959).

17. C. Renfrew, "Cycladic Metallurgy and the Aegean Early Bronze Age," AJA 71 (1967) 1-20.

18. R.B. Seager, "Excavations at Mochlos," AJA 13 (1909) 209 and fig. 2 on p. 279.

19. Y. Vichos, N. Tsouchlos, and G. Papathanassopoulos, "Première année de fouille de l'épave de Docos," in Thalassa (see above).

20. S. Wachsmann, "The Thera Waterborne Procession Reconsidered," IJNA 9 (1980) 287-295.

21. C. Zervos, L'art de la Crète: néolithique et minoenne (Cahiers d'Art, Paris 1956). Mochlos and Palaikastro models.

 

XVIII. MIDDLE BRONZE AGE SHIPS AND SHIPPING

1. J. Bartlett and Hobbs, An Egyptian Burial Boat from Dashur (1897).

2. G.F. Bass, "Sheytan Deresi: Preliminary Report," IJNA 5 (1976) 293-303.

3. ---------, "The Wreck at Sheytan Deresi," Oceans 1 (1977) 34-39.

4. J.-J. de Morgan, Fouilles à Dahchour: Mars-juin 1884 (Vienna 1885).

5. ---------------, Fouilles à Dahchour 1894-1895 (Vienna 1903).

6. C. Haldane, The Dashur Boats (M.A. thesis, Texas A&M University 1984).

7. ----------, "A Fourth Boat from Dashur," AJA 88 (1984) 81-83.

8. ----------, "Boat Timbers from El-Lisht: A New Method of Ancient Egyptian Hull Construction. Preliminary Report," MM 74 (1988) 141-51.

9. ----------, "The Lisht Timbers," in D. Arnold, The Pyramid Complex of Senwosret I (New York 1992).

10. F. Matz, ed., Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel (Berlin 1964).

11. D. Patch, and C. Haldane, The Pharaoh's Boat at the Carnegie (Pittsburgh 1990).

12. D.R. Theochares, "Iolkos, Whence Sailed the Argonauts,"Archaeology 11 (1958) 13-18.

13. H.E. Winlock, Models of Daily Life in Ancient Egypt from the Tomb of Meket-r' at Thebes (Cambridge, MA 1955).



XIX. BRONZE AGE PORTS, HARBORS, AND QUAYS

A. Egyptian

1. Ludwig Borchardt, Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Ne-user-re'(Leipzig 1907) ADOG in Abusir, 1902-1904, vol. 7, pls. 1-3; see text under "Torban im Tale."

2. ----------------, Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Sahu-re' (Leipzig 1910) ADOG in Abusir, 1902-1908; vol. 14, pls. 2, 3, 8, pp. 7 ff. and 31-34.

3. U. Holscher, The Mortuary Temple of Ramses III, pt. II (The Excavation of Medinet Habu IV, O.I.P. 55, Chicago 1951) pls. 1,2; pp. 11-13, figs. 4-13. cf. footnote 32.

4. Karnak: ASAE 24., 85; C.R. Lepsius, Denkmaler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien I (Leipzig 1897) 76, 82, 75; G. Legrain, "Textes graves sur le quai de Karnak," AA 34, 111-118.

5. M. Pillet, "Le Quai du Nord," ASAE 24 (1924) 84-88.

6. Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings II. Theban Temples (Oxford 1929) for bibliography.



B. Minoan

1. Honor Frost, Under the Mediterranean (1963) 107-110.

2. S. Marinatos, "Anaskaphai Nirou Xani Kretes," Praktika (1926) 141-147.

3. "Chronique des fouilles," BCH 50 (1926) 573, s.v. Niroukhani.

 

XX. LATE HELLADIC AND LATE MINOAN SHIPS AND SHIPPING

1. L. Basch, "Appendix A," MM 71 (1985) 413-415.

2. --------, "Bow and Stern Appendages in the Ancient Mediterranean," MM 69 (1983) 395-412.

3. G. Bass, A History of Seafaring (1972) 16-17.

4. J.H. Betts, "Ships on Minoan Seals," in D.J. Blackman, ed., Marine Archaeology (Colston Papers 23, London 1973)325-336.

5. ----------, Die Schweizer Sammlungen (Berlin 1980).

6. C. Blegen, "Hyria," Hesperia suppl. 8 (1949) pl. 7.

7. J. Boardman, Greek Gems and Finger Rings: Early Bronze Age to Late Classical (London 1970) 19-54.

8. L.M. Brown, "The Ship Fresco from Thera; Some Thoughts on Iconography," BICS 24 (1977) 144-45.

9. ----------, "The Ship Procession in the Miniature Fresco," Thera and the Aegean World (London 1978) 629-44.

10. H.G. Buchholz, "Bemerkungen zum Schiffsfresko von Thera," Hellas, Ewig unsere Liebe: Festschrift W. Zschietzachmann (1975) 5-14.

11. L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship...[see above] (1971) 30-42.

12. ---------, "Bronze Age Ships: The Evidence of the Thera Wall Paintings," IJNA 4 (1975) 3-10.

13. ---------, "The Thera Ships," IJNA 7 (1978) 232-33.

14. L. Cohen, "Evidence for the Ram in the Minoan Period," AJA 42 (1938) 486-94.

15. F. Dakoronia, "Warships on Sherds of LH III C Kraters from Kynos," in H. Tzalas, ed., Tropis II (Delphi 1987).

16. 16. C.G. Doumas, Thera: Pompeii of the Ancient Aegean (London 1983).

17. M. Edey, The Sea Traders (1974).

18. J. Ernstone, "The Ship Procession Fresco - The Pilots," IJNA 14 (1985) 315-20.

19. A. Evans, The Palace of Minos, vol. I, 283-284; vol. II, 239-243; vol. IV, 249-253.

20. C.E. Gibson, "The Origin of the Ram," MM 33 (1947) 164 ff.

21. H.E. Giesecke, "The Akrotiri Ship Fresco," IJNA 12 (1983) 123-43.

22. T.C. Gillmer, MM 61 (1975) 324.

23. ------------, "Appendix B," MM 71 (1985) 415-16.

24. ------------, "The Thera Ships - A Re-analysis," MM 64 (1978) 125-33.

25. ------------, "The Thera Ships as Sailing Vessels," MM 71 (1985) 401-13.

26. R. Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete (Baltimore 1962) 91-115.

27. S. Immerwahr, "Mycenaeans at Thera: Some Reflections on the Paintings from the West House," Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean in Ancient History and Prehistory (New York 1977).

28. P.F. Johnston, "Bronze Age Cycladic Ships: An Overview," Temple University Aegean Symposium 7 (1982) 1-8.

29. Paul Johnstone, "Stern First in the Stone Age," IJNA 2 (1973) 3.

30. --------------, The Seacraft of Prehistory (1980) 61-68.

31. --------------, "A Minoan Naval Triumph," with A.F. Tilley, IJNA 5 (1976) 285.

32. V.E.G. Kenna, The Cretan Talismanic Stone in the Late Minoan Age (Lund 1969).

33. D.H. Kennedy, "A Further Note on the Thera Ships," MM 64(1978) pp. 135-137.

34. G.S. Kirk, "Ships on Geometric Vases," BSA 44 (1949) 116-17.

35. Kourouniotes, ArchEph 1914, p. 108, Pylos rep.

36. S. Marinatos, "La marine créto-mycénienne," BCH 57 (1933) 170-235.

37. ------------, "Das Schiffsfresko von Akrotiri, Thera," Seewesen: Archaeologia Homerica I, D. Gray (1974a).

38. ------------, "From the Miniature Fresco of Thera: A Detail of the Body-Shield," AAA 6, pp. 494-499.

39. L. Morgan, The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera (Cambridge, 1988).

40. ------------, Excavations at Thera VI (Athens, 1974).

41. H. Mühlestein, Die oka-Tafeln von Pylos.

42. D. Page, "The Miniature Frescoes from Acrotiri, Thera," PraktAtAth 51 (1976) 135-49.

43. M.G. Prytulak, "Weapons on the Thera Ships," IJNA 11 (1982) 3-6.

44. A. Raban, "Ships and Shipping in the Wall Paintings of Thera," Qadmoniot 10 (1977) 18-21. In Hebrew.

45. --------, "The Thera Ships: Another Interpretation," AJA 88 (1984) 11-19.

46. Colin Renfrew, "Cycladic Metallurgy and the Bronze Age Aegean," AJA (1967) 1-20.

47. C.G. Reynolds, "Note: The Thera Ships," MM 64 (1978) 124.

48. G.B. Rubin de Cervin, MM 63 (1977) 150-151.

49. G. Saflund, "Cretan and Theran Questions," in R. Hagg and N. Marinatos, Sanctuaries and Cults in the Aegean Bronze Age (Stockholm 1981).

50. A. Sakellariou, Les cachets minoens de la collection Giamalkis (Paris 1958).

51. --------------, Die minoischen und mykenischen Siegel des Nationalmuseums in Athen (Berlin 1964) 463.

52. C.F.A. Schaeffer, Enkomi-Alasia I (Paris 1952) pl. 10, stone stele.

53. M.C. Shaw, "Painted 'Ikria' at Mycenae?" AJA 84 (1980) 167-179.

54. ---------, "Ship Cabins of the Bronze Age Aegean," IJNA 11 (1982) 53-58.

55. A.M. Shephard, Sea Power in Ancient History (1925).

56. C. Starr, History of the Ancient World

57. L.W. Taylour, The Mycenaeans (1983).

58. M. Ventris and Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek (Cambridge 2d ed. 1973).

59. J. Vercoutter, L'Égypte et le monde égéen préhellenique (Cairo 1956).

60. Emily Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age (1964).

61. S. Wachsmann, "Bird-Head Devices on Mediterranean Ships," Tropis IV.

62. ------------, "Letters to the Editor," IJNA 6 (1977) 266-267.

63. ------------, "The Thera Waterborne Procession Reconsidered," IJNA 9 (1980) 287-295.

64. ------------, Aegeans in the Theban Tombs (Leuve 1987).

65. P. Warren, "The Miniature Fresco from the West House at Akrotiri, Thera and its Aegean Setting," JHS 99 (1979) 115-29.



XXI. THE MINOAN THALASSOCRACY: MYTH OR REALITY?

1. R.L.N. Barber, The Cyclades in the Bronze Age (London 1987).

2. K. Branigan, "Minoan Colonialism," BSA 76 (1981) 23-33.

3. C. Starr, "The Myth of the Minoan Thalassocracy," Historia 1 (1955) 282-291.

4. P. Warren, "THe Place of Crete in the Thalassocracy of Minos," in R. Hagg and N. Marinatos, eds., The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth or Reality (1984).

5. M. Wiener, "Isles of Crete? The Minoan Thalassocracy Revisited," Thera and the Aegean World III, vol. 1, Archaeology (1984).

 

XXII. THE ULUBURUN (KAS) SHIPWRECK

1. G.F. Bass, "A Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kas):1984 Campaign," AJA 90 (1986) 269-96.

2. ---------, "The Ulu Burun Shipwreck," VII. Kazi Sonuçlari Toplantisi (Ankara 1986) 619-35, and annual reports thereafter.

3. ---------, "Oldest Known Shipwreck Reveals Bronze Age Splendors," National Geographic 172 no. 6 (December 1987) 692-733.

4. ---------, "Underwater Excavation of the Ulu Burun Shipwreck," VIII. Kazi Sonuçlari Toplantisi II (Ankara 1987) 291-302.

5. G.F. Bass, D.A. Frey and C. Pulak, "A Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Kas, Turkey," IJNA 13 (1984) 271-79.

6. G.F. Bass, C. Pulak, D. Collon and J. Weinstein, "The Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun: 1986 Campaign," AJA 93 (1989).

7. C. Pulak, "The Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1985 Campaign," AJA 92 (1988) 1-37.

8. C. Pulak and D.A. Frey, "The Search for a Bronze Age Shipwreck," Archaeology 38 no. 4 (1985) 18-24.



XXIII. NEW KINGDOM EGYPTIAN SHIPS AND SHIPPING

1. R.C. Anderson, "Notes: Queen Hatshepsut's Great Lighter," MM 11 (1925) 438; 12 (1926) 447; 13 (1927) 182.

2. Ballard, G.A., "The Egyptian Obelisk Lighter," MM 32 (1947) 158-164.

3. -----------, "Egyptian Shipping of about 1500 B.C.," MM 23 (1937) 103-105.

4. -----------, "The Great Obelisk Lighter of 1550 B.C.," MM 27 (1941) 290-306.

5. ------------, "The Sculptures of Deir-el-Bahari," MM 6 (1920) 149 ff., 162 ff., 212 ff.

6. ------------, "The Transporting of the Obelisks at Karnak," MM 6 (1920) 264-273, 307-314.

7. C.D.J. Bell, "The Obelisk Barge of Hatshepsut," Ancient Egypt and the East (1934).

8. S. Clark and R. Engelbach, Ancient Egyptian Masonry (Oxford 1930). Models in the tomb of Tutankhamen.

9. G.S.L. Clowes, "Notes: Queen Hatshepsut's Great Lighter," MM 13 (1927) 89-90.

10. F.E. Dyer, "Notes: Queen Hatshepsut's Great Lighter," MM 12 (1926) 221-223.

11. R.O. Faulkner, "Egyptian Sea-Going Ships," JEA 26 (1940)7-9.

12. ------------, "Queen Hatshepsut's Great Lighter," MM 13 (1927) 182.

13. S.R.K. Glanville, Records of a Royal Dockyard of the Time of Thutmose III: Papyrus British Museum 10056 (ZÄS 66 [1931] 105-21; 68 [1932] 7-41).

14. L. Habuchi, "Two Graffiti at Sehel from the Reign of Queen Hatshepsut," JNES 16 (1957) 88.

15. J.J. Janssen, Two Ancient Egyptian Ship's Logs: Papyrus Leiden I 350 verso and Papyrus Turin 2008+2016 (Leiden 1961).

16. A. Köster, Studien zur Geschichte des antiken Seewesens (Leipzig 1934).

17. E. Linder, "Naval Warfare in the El-Amarna Age," in D.J. Blackman, ed., Marine Archaeology (London 1973) 317-324.

18. E. Naville, The Temple of Deir el Bahari III (London 1894), IV (London,1908- ).

19. T. Säve-Söderbergh, The Navy of the Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty (Uppsala 1946).

20. C.V. Sølver, "The Egyptian Obelisk-Ships," MM 26 (1940) 237-256.

21. --------, "Egyptian Obelisk-Ships," MM 33 (1947) 39-43.

22. --------, "The Egyptian Obelisk-Ships," MM 34 (1948) 55.

23. --------, "Egyptian Shipping of about 1500 B.C.," MM (1936).

 

XXIV. FOREIGN SHIPS IN THE EGYPTIAN NEW KINGDOM

1. L. Casson, The Ancient Mariners (New York 1959).

2. N. Davies and R.O. Faulkner, "A Syrian Trading Venture to Egypt," JEA 33 (1947) 40-47.

3. N. Davies and A.H. Gardiner, The Tomb of Huy, Viceroy of Nubia in the Reign of Tut'ankhamun (London 1926) pl. XII.

4. S.R.K. Glanville in ZÄS pt. I vol. 66 (1931) 105-21. Pt. II, vol. 68 (1932) 7-14, passim. Reference in papyrus B.M. 10056, in "Dockyard records" from Prwnfr, Harbor at Memphis.

5. E. Marx, "The First Recorded Sea Battle," MM 32 (1946) 242-251.

6. E. Marx, "The Origin of the Ram," MM (1948) 118-119.

7. H.M. Nelson, "The Naval Battle of Medinet Habu," JNES 2 (1943) 40-45.

8. A. Raban, "The Medinet Habu Ships: Another Interpretation," IJNA 18 (1989) 163-171.

9. W.S. Smith, Interconnections in the Ancient Near East (New Haven 1965) 176-77, fig. 220.

10. J. Vercoutter, L'Égypte et le monde égéen préhellenique (Cairo 1956).

11. S. Wachsmann, "The Ships of the Sea Peoples," IJNA 10 (1981) 187-220.

12. ---------, "The Ships of the Sea Peoples," IJNA 11 (1982) 297-304.



XXV. CANAANITE, CYPRIOT AND OTHER NEAR EASTERN SHIPPING

1. E. Linder, The Maritime Texts of Ugarit (Ph.D. Dissertation, Brandeis University 1970).

2. ---------, "A Sea-faring Merchant from Ugarit and the Cape Gelidonya Wreck," IJNA 1 (1972) 163-64.

3. J.M. Sasson, "Canaanite Maritime Involvement in the 2nd Millennium B.C.," JAOS 86 (1966) 126-38.

4. K. Westerberg, Cypriote Ships from the Bronze Age to c. 500 B.C. (Gothenburg 1983).

5. A. Yannai, Studies on Trade Between the Levant and the Aegean in the 14th to 12th Century B.C. (Ph.D. dissertation, Linacre College, Oxford 1983).



XXVI. THE SHIPWRECK AT CAPE GELIDONYA

1. G.F. Bass, Cape Gelidonya Wreck: Preliminary Report," AJA 65 (1961) 267-276.

2. ---------, "A Bronze Age Shipwreck," Expedition 3 no. 2 (1961) 2-11.

3. -----------, Archaeology Under Water (London 1966; rev. ed., Baltimore 1970) passim.

4. -----------, Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s. vol. 57, pt. 8, 1967).

5. -----------, "Cape Gelidonya and Bronze Age Maritime Trade," in H.A. Hoffner, Jr., ed., Orient and Occident, Essays Presented to Cyrus H. Gordon (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 22, Neukirchen 1973) 29-38.

6. -----------, Archaeology Beneath the Sea (New York 1975)1-59.

7. -----------, "Return to Cape Gelidonya," INA Newsletter 15 no. 2 (1988) 1-5.

8. -----------, "Evidence of Trade from Bronze Age Shipwrecks, in N.H. Gale, ed., Bronze Age Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean (1989).

9. -----------, "Excavating a Bronze Age Shipwreck," Archaeology 14 no. 2 (1961) 78-87. With Peter Throckmorton.

10. H. W. Catling, Cypriot Bronzework in the Mycenaean World (Oxford 1964) passim.

11. -------------, "The Date of the Cape Gelidonya Ship and Cypriot Bronzework," RDAC 1986: 68-71.

12. R. Giveon, "Dating the Cape Gelidonya Shipwreck," AnatSt 25 (1985) 99-101.

13. C. Pulak and E. Rogers, "The 1993-1994 Turkish Shipwreck Surveys," INA Quarterly 21. no. 4 (1994) 20-21 for ship's anchor.

13. A.R. Schulman, "Three Shipwrecked Scarabs," Expedition 3 (1961) 24-25.

14. Peter Throckmorton, "Thirty-Three Centuries Under the Sea," National Geographic 117 no. 5 (1960) 682-703.

15. ------------------, "Oldest Known Shipwreck Yields Bronze Age Cargo," National Geographic 121 no. 5 (1962) 696-711.

16. ------------------, The Lost Ships (Boston & Toronto 1964).



XXVII. THE POINT IRIA SHIPWRECK

1. H. PENNAS, "Point Iria Wreck," Enalia Annual 1990 vol. (1992), 39-41.

2. CH. PENNAS, Y. VICHOS and Y. LOLOS, "The 1991 Underwatter Survey of the Late Bronze Age Wreck at Point Iria, Enalia Annual 1991, vol. 3 (1995), 4-16.

3. Y.G. Lolos, "Late Cypro-Mycenaean Seafaring: New Evidence From Sites in the Saronic and the Argolic Gulfs," in V. KARAGEORGHIS and D. MICHAELIDES, eds., Cyprus and the Sea (Nicosia 1995), 72-77.



XXVIII. OTHER LATE BRONZE AGE SHIPWRECKS

1. E. Galili, "Remains of a Bronze Age Ship from 'Kfar Samir'," C.M.S. News 10 (1984).

2. E. Galili and M. Artzy, "Bronze Age Ship's Cargo of Copper and Tin," IJNA 15 (1986) 25-37.

3. A. Raban and E. Galili, "Recent Maritime Archaeological Research in Israel - A Preliminary Report," IJNA 14 (1985) 326-332.

4. S. Wachsmann and K. Raveh, "Concerning a Lead Ingot from ha-Hotrim, Israel," IJNA 13 (1984) 169-176.

5. S. Wachsmann and K. Raveh, "An Underwater Salvage Excavation near Kibbutz ha-Hotrim, Israel," IJNA 10 (1981) 160.



XXIX. MYCENAEAN TRADE

1. H. Kantor, "The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium," AJA 51 (1947).

2. S. Immerwahr, "Mycenaean Trade and Colonization," Archaeology 13 (1960).

3. F.H. Stubbings, Mycenaean Pottery from the Levant (Cambridge 1951).

4. H.W. Catling, "Minoan and Mycenaean Pottery: Composition and Provenance," Archaeometry (1963).

5. Lord William Taylor, Mycenaean Pottery in Italy (Cambridge 1958).

6. A.J.B. Wace and C. Blegen, "Pottery as Evidence for Trade and Colonization," Klio 32 (1939) 131 ff.

7. J.D.S. Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca (Cambridge 1930).



XXX. LATE BRONZE AGE METALS TRADE

1. G.F. Bass, Cape Gelidonya, and in Orient and Occident and Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (above).

2. M.J. Becker, "Sardinia and the Mediterranean Copper Trade: Political Development and Colonialism in the Bronze Age," Anthropology 4 no. 2 (1980) 91-117.

3. H.-G. Buchholz, "Keftiubarren und Erzhandel in zweiten vorchristlichen Jahrtausend," PZ 37 (1959) 1-40.

4. ----------, "Die Kupferhandel des 2. vorchristlichen Jahrtausends im Spiegel der Schriftforschung," Minoica (Festschrift Sundwall, Berlin 1958).

5. N.H. Gale, ed., Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (SIMA 90, 1991).

6. N.H. Gale and Z.A. Stos-Gale, "Cycladic Lead and Silver Metallurgy," BSA 76 (1981) 169-224.

7. ----------, "Oxhide Ingots from Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus: New Scientific Evidence," in M. Balmuth, ed., Studies in Sardinian Archaeology III (BAR International Series 387, Oxford 1987) 135-178.

8. J.D. Muhly, "Homer and the Phoenicians: The Relations between Greece and the Near East in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age," Berytus 19 (1970).

9. N.F. Parise, "I pani di rame del II millennio A.C.," Atti I Congr. Int. Micenologia (Rome 1967).



XXXI. PROBLEMS OF LATE BRONZE AGE GEOGRAPHY

1. The Identification of Alasia:

a. H. Catling, CAH II Part 2A (1972).

b. L. Hellbing, Alasia Problems (SIMA 57, Götebor

1979).

c. Y.L. Holmes, "The Location of Alashiya," JAOS 9 (19..) 426-429.

d. A.B. Knapp, ed., Near Eastern and Aegean Texts from the third to the First Millennia BC (1996).

e. R.S. Merrillees, "Alashia," in Praktika tou Protou Diethnous Kyprologikou Synedrious (Nicosia), pp. 111-119

f. ---------, Alashia Revisited (Paris 1987).

g. J.D. Muhly, "The Land of Alashiya: References to Alashiya in the Texts of the Second Millennium and the History of Cyprus in the Late Bronze Age," in Praktika tou Protou Diethnous Kuprologikou Synedriou (Nicosia), pp. 210-219.

2. The Identification of Ahhiyawa:

a. G.F. Bass, "Mycenaean and Protogeometric Tombs in the Halicarnassus Peninsula," AJA 67 (1963) 353-361.

b. D. Page, History and the Homeric Iliad (Berkele 1959).

c. G.L. Huxley, Achaeans and Hittites (Belfast 1968).

3. The Identification of Keftiu:

a. H. Kantor, "The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium B.C.," AJA 51 (1947).

b. J. Strange, Caphtor/Keftiu: A New Investigation (Leiden 1980).

c. J. Vercoutter, L'Égypte et le monde égéen

préhellenique (Paris 1956).

d. G.A. Wainwright, "Asiatic Keftiu," AJA 56 (1952) 196-212.

e. ---------, "Keftiu and Karamania (Asia Minor)," AnatSt 4 (1954) 33-48.



XXXII. BRONZE AGE ANCHORS

1. C. Davaras, "Une ancre minoenne sacrée?" BCH 104 (1980) 47-71.

2. H. Frost, entry on anchors in the forthcoming Maritime and Underwater Archaeology: An Encyclopedia, ed. James Delgado.

3. E. Galili, "A Group of Stone Anchors from Newe-Yam," IJNA 14 (1985) 143-153.

4. D.E. McCaslin, Stone Anchors in Antiquity (Göteborg 1980), reviewed by Joan du Plat Taylor in IJNA 12 (1983 273-274.

5. A. Nibbi, "Ancient Egyptian Anchors: A Focus on the Facts," MM 70 (1984) 247-266.

6. S. Wachsmann and D. Haldane, "Anchors," in E.M. Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East I (1997) 139 for bibliography.



XXXIII. NEO-SUMERIAN AND OLD BABYLONIAN SHIPPING

1. M.-C. de Graeve, The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c.2000-500 B.C.) (Leuven 1981).

2. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 4 (1958) 90-95 for "elippu."

3. L. Legrain, Ur Excavation Texts III: Business Documents of the Third Dynasty of Ur.

4. A.L. Oppenheim, "The Sea-Faring Merchants of Ur," JAOS 74 (1954) 6 ff.

5. J. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton 1955) 163-180, for Code of Hammurabi.

6. A. Salonen, "Nautica Babylonica," Studia Orientalia 11 (1942) 1-118.



XXXIV. HOMERIC SHIPS AND SAILING: ILIAD AND ODYSSEY

1. V. Berard, Dans le syllage d'Ulysse (Paris 1933).

2. E. Bradford, Ulysses Found (New York 1963).

3. F. Brewster, "The Raft of Odysseus," HSCP 37 (1926) 49ff.

4. L. Casson, The Ancient Mariners, passim.

5. ---------, "New Light on Ancient Rigging and Boatbuilding," American Neptune 24 (1964) 81-94.

6. ---------, "Odysseus' Boat," AJP 85 (1964) 61-64.

7. ---------, "Odysseus' Boat (Od. 5.244-53)," IJNA 21 (1992) 73-74.

8. D. Gray, Seewesen (Archaeologia Homerica: Die Denkmaler und das frügriechishce Epos I, Kapitel G)(Göttingen 1974).

9. S. Mark, "Odyssey 5.234-53 and Homeric Ship Construction: A Reappraisal," AJA 95 (1991) 441-445.

10. J.S. Morrison, "Notes on Certain Greek Nautical Terms..." CQ 41 (1947) 122-135.

11. T.D. Seymour, Life in the Homeric Age (New York 1907) ch. 9.

12. C. Torr, Ancient Ships, passim.

13. A.J.B. Wace and F. Stubbings, Companion to Homer (London 1962) passim.

 

XXXV. PROTOGEOMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC SHIPS

1. G. Buchner, "Figurlich Bemalte spätgeometrischen Vasen aus Pithekussai und Kyme," RM 60 (1953) 44-45.

2. Courbin, "Geometric Warrior's Grave," BCH 81 (1957) 367.

3. Hesiod, Works and Days, 618-691 and passim.

4. G.S. Kirk, "Ships on Geometric Vases," BSA 44 (1949) 92-153.

5. J.S. Morrison and R.T. Williams, Greek Oared Ships (Cambridge 1968).

6. G.M.A. Richter, "A Colossal Dipylon vase," BMMA 1933-34, 169 ff, and pls. 1-3.

7. A.N. Skias, "Panaichaia eleusiniake nekropolis," ArchEph 1898, 29 ff, pl. 5.

8. F.H. van Doorninck, Jr., "Protogeometric Longships and the Introduction of the Ram," IJNA 11 (1982) 277-286,

9. R.T. Williams, "Early Greek Ships of Two Levels," JHS 78 (1953) 121-130, pls. XIII-XV.



XXXVI. ASSYRIAN AND PHOENICIAN SHIPS AND SHIPPING

1. L. Casson, The Ancient Mariners, passim.

2. G. Contenau, La civilization phénicienne (Paris 1949).

3. G. Daressy, "Une flottilée phénicienne," RA 27 (1895) 286-292.

4. N. Davies and R.O. Faulkner, "A Syrian Trading Venture in Egypt," JEA 33 (1947) 40-46.

5. M.-C. de Graeve, The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c.2000-500 B.C.) (Leuven 1981).

6. J.G. Fevrier, "L'ancienne marine phénicienne," La nouvelle Clio 2 (1950) 128-143.

7. T.H. Gaster," A Phoenician Naval Gazette," PEQ 1938, 105-112.

8. Gimpera, "Phéniciennes et grecs dans l'extrême occident," La nouvelle Clio 3 (1951) 269-306.

9. Layard, Monuments of Nineveh I (London 1849) pl. 71, 32-35.

10. ------, Nineveh and its Remains (New York 1849) cf. plates.

 

XXXVII. SEVENTH CENTURY B.C. SEAFARING

Ports and Trading Routes

1. J. Boardman, The Greeks Overseas (Baltimore 1964).

2. T. Georgiades, Les ports de la Grèce dans l'antiquité (1906).

3. K. Lehmann-Hartleben, Die antiken Hafenanlagen des Mittlemeeres (Leipzig 1923) 45-65.

4. J. Paris, "Contributions a l'étude des ports antiques du monde grec," BCH 40 (1916) 5-73.

5. C.A. Roebuck, Ionian Trade and Colonization (New York 1959).



Ships: Location of Representations

1. Fibula: R. Hampe, Frühe griechische Saganbilder in Böotien (Athens 1936) taf. 4, 5, 6, 11, 14.

2. Ivory Plaque: R.M. Dawkins, The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia in Sparta (London 1906-10) pls. CIX, CX.

3. Plaque from Sounion: G.S. Kirk, "Ships on Geometric Vases," BSA 44 (1949) fig. 7.

4. Aristonothos Krater from Caere: R.T. Williams, "Early Greek Ships of Two Levels," JHS 78 (1958) 120-130, pl. XV.

5. Cypriot Model from Amathos: C. Torr, Ancient Ships (Chicago 1964) pl. D.



XXXVIII. ETRUSCAN, ITALIC, AND SARDINIAN SHIPS AND SHIPPING

1. N. Alfieri et al., "Nave," Enciclopedia dell'arte antica V (Rome 1963) 369-383.

2. F. Benoît, RSTLig 22 (1956) 20-21.

3. E. Boucher, "Ceramique archaique d'importation au Musée Lavigerie de Carthage," CahByrsa 3 (1953) 29-32.

4. V. Bruno, "The Mystery of the Etruscan Coastline," Archaeology 26 (1973) 198-212.

5. L. Casson, "The Earliest Two-Masted Ship," Archaeology 16 (1963) 108-111.

6. E. Colozier, "Les Étrusques et Carthage," MelRome 65 (1953) 63-98.

7. C. Feuillet, "Les Étrusques près de Montpellier," L'Expresse (Jan. 2, 1966) 52-53.

8. F. Gehn, "Die Schiffe der Etrusker," RM 34 (1919) 1-16.

9. J. Joncheray, "L'épave greque, ou étrusque, de Bon-Porté," CahArchSubaq 5 (1976) 5-36.

10. G. Karo, "Etruskisches in Griechenland," ArchEph (1937) 316-320.

11. E. Kunze, "Etruskische Bronzen in Griechenland," in G. Mylonas, ed., Studies Presented to David M. Robinson I (St. Louis 1951) 736-746.

12. A. McCann et al., "Underwater Excavations at the Etruscan Port of Populanio," JFA 4 (1977) 275-296.

13. F. Miltner, "Über die Herkunft der etruskischen Schiffe," ÖJh 37 (1948) 113-22.

14. M. Moretti, Tarquinia: La tomba della nave (Milan 1961).

15. J. Oleson, "Underwater Survey and Excavation in the Port of Pyrgi (Santa Severa), 1974," JFA 4 (1977) 297-308.

16. Paglieri, "Origine e diffusione della navi etrusco-italishe," StEtr 28 (1960) 209-231.

17. B. Shefton, et al., Perachora II (Oxford 1962) 386.

18. R. Vighi, "La piu antica rappresentazione di nave etrusco-italica," RendLinc, ser. 6, no. 8 (1932) 367-75.

19. F. Villard, "Les cantharos de bucchero et la chronologie du commerce étrusque d'exportation," Hommages Grenier (Brussels 1962) 1625-35.