Islamic Rulers





The Hijrah (Islamic Historical) Era

622-632: Muhammed (Begins on 16th July 622)


Rightly Guided Caliphs

632-634: Abu Bakr (Assumes the title Khalifah, "successor," to the Prophet)

634-644: Umar ibn al-Khattab

636-651: Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius defeated, and Palestine conquered in 636. Syria and Egypt taken in 640. Mesopotamia conquered from the Persians in 637, and the Persians defeated in 642. Persia overrun by 651.

644-656: Uthman (Umayyad Clan)

656-661: Ali ibn abi Talib (Son-in-Law of Muhammed)

655-661: For two decades around these years there are civil wars in Arabia.


Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750)

661-680: Mu'awiya I (Assumes caliphate at death of Ali)

674-677: Capital moves to Damascus. Arab aristocratic government established there. Siege of Constantinople.

680-683: Yazid I

683-684: Mu'awiya II

684-685: Marwan I

685-705: Abd al Malik

698: North Africa falls to Islam. Builds the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

705-715: al Walid I

711: Visigothic Spain falls to Islam. End of the Visigoths. Builds the Omayyad Mosque in Damascus.

715-717: Sulayman

717-718: Siege of Constantinople.

717-720: Umar II

720-724: Yazid II

724-743: Hisham (Grandfather of the first Umayyad Amir of Spain).

c. 740: ?Khirbat al-Mafjar

743-744: al Walid II

744: Yazid III

744: Ibrahim

744-750: Marwan II

751: Battle of Talas. T'ang Dynasty Chinese defeated, but no further advance into Central Asia is made. Umayyads overthrown and massacred (except in Spain, where they continue to rule independent of the rest of Islam) in Abbasid revolution. End of Arab empire. Equality of all Moslems is established.


Abbasid Caliphate (750 - 1258)

750-754: Abdullah as Saffah (Abu al-Abbas)

750: Capital moves to Baghdad

754-775: Abdullah al Mansur (Abu Jafar al-Mansur)

775-785: Muhammad al Mahdi

785-786: Musa al Hadi

786-809: Harun al Rashid

800: Aghlabid Amirs of Tunisia & Algeria assume autonomous rule.

809-813: Muhammad al Amin

813-833: Abdullah al Ma'mun

821: The Tahirid Amirs of Khurasan drift out of Abbasid control.

833-842: Muhammad al Mu'tasim. Moved to Samarra with Turkish guard.

842-847: Harun al Watiq

847-861: Ja'far al Mutawakkil.  Assassinated by Turkish guard.

861-862: Muhammad al Muntasir

862-866: Ahmad al Musta'in

866-869: Muhammad al Mutazz

869-870: Muhammad al Muhtadi

870-892: Ahmad al Mutamid.  Returned to Baghdad.

892-902: Ahmad al Mutadid

902-908: Ali Muktafi

908-929: : Jafar al Muqtadir.  Fatimid Dynasty (908-1170) begins.

929: Muhammad al Qahir

929-932: Jafar al Muqtadir

932-934: Muhammad al Qahir

934-940: Ahmad ar Radi.  Loss of authority.

940-944: Ibrahim al Muttaqi

944-946: Adbullah al Mustakfi (d.949)

945: Under Shi'ite Buwayids.

946-974: al Fadl al Muti

765: A school of medicine is established in Baghdad.

974-991: AdulKarim atTa'I

991-1031: Ahmad al Qadir

1031-1075: Abdullah al Qa'im

1055: Under Seljuq control. Grants title of Sultan.

1075-1094: Abdullah al Muqtadi

1094-1118: Ahmad al Mustazhir

1118-1135: al Fadl al Mustarshid

1135-1136: al Mansur ar Rashid

1136-1160: Muhammad al Muqtafi

1160-1170: Yusuf al Mustanjid

1170-1180: al Hasan al Mustadi

1071: Battle of Manzikert. Seljuks defeat the Byzantines and establish control over Asia Minor.

1180-1225: Ahmad an Nasir

1096-1099: First Crusade (Alexus Comnenus and Pope Urban II)

1099: Crusaders take Jerusalem.

1147-1149: Second Crusade (preached by Bernard de Clairvaux)

1187: Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders.

1189-1192: Third Crusade (Frederick Barbarosa, the Holy Roman Emperor, King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France).

1194: Independent from Seljuqs.

1202-1204: Fourth Crusade (Constantinople)

1218-1221: Fifth Crusade (Egypt).

1225-1226: Muhammad az Zahir

1226-1242: al Mansur al Mustansir

                          1228-1229: Sixth Crusade (Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor)

1242-1258: Abdullah al Musta'sim.  Killed by Mongol Khan Hulagu.

1248-1254: Seventh Crusade (Louis IX of France: Egypt)

1258: Mongols sack Baghdad. End of Abbasid Caliphate. Mamluks set up the Abbasid puppet caliphate in Egypt which continues until the Ottoman conquest. Control of the Islamic Empire falls to the Ottoman Turks, who govern from Asia Minor.



Umayyad Caliphs of Spain (756 - 1031)

756-788: AburRahman I.  Grandson of Hisham.  Escaped to Spain from the massacre, and established himself and his line. Eventually, in response to the Fatimid Shiite Caliphate, the Spanish Umayyads proclaimed their own Caliphate

788-799: Hisham I

799-822: al-Hakam I

822-852: AbdurRahman II

852-886: Muhammad I

886-888: al-Mundhir

888-912: Abdullah

912-961: AbdurRahman III

961-976: al-Hakam II

976-1008: Hisham II

1008-1009: Muhammad II

1009: Sulayman

1010-1012: Hisham II.  Restored?

1012-1017: Sulayman.  Restored?

1017-1021: Ali ibn Hamud

1021-1022: AbdurRahman IV

1022: al-Qasim

1022-1023: AbdurRahman V

1023-1024: Muhammad III

1024-1027: Yahya ibn Ali

1027-1031: Hisham III

1030: The Ommayad Caliphate is divided into a number of small kingdoms.

1085: Latin Christians take Toledo, beginning the "Reconquista."

1147 - 1229: Islamic Spain ruled by the North African Almohad Dynasty.

1228 - 1229: Almohads lose control of Spain to the Christian kingdoms. Only the Nasrid kings remain in Granada.

1453: Istanbul (Constantinople) is taken.  End of the Middle Ages.

1492: End of the Reconquista in Spain.



Nasrid Kings of Granada (1238 - 1492)

1238-1273: Mohammad I

            1270: Eigth Crusade (an unsuccessful attack on Tunis)

1273-1303: Mohammad II

1303-1309: Mohammad III

1309-1312: Nazar

1312-1325: Ismail I

1325-1333: Mohammad IV

1333-1354: Yusef I

1354-1359: Mohammad V

1359-1361: Ismail II

1361: Abu-Said

1361-1391: Mohammad V.  Restored?

1391-1396: Yusef II

1396-1408: Mohammad VI

1408-1425: Yusef III

1425-1427: Mohammad VII

1427: Mohammad VIII

1427-1431: Mohammad VII.  Restored?

1431: Ibn Alhamar

1432-1445: Mohammad VII.  Restored?

1445-1454: Ibn Ostman

1454-1456: Ibn Ismail

1453: Istanbul (Constantinople) is taken.  End of the Middle Ages.

1456-1482: Mulay Hasen

1482-1492: Abu Abdullah / Boabdil

1492: Conquered by the kings of Castille and Aragon, marking the end of Islamic Spain.




The Ottoman Empire (1290 - 1924)

1290-1326: Osman I

1308-1326: Seljuq Rum is overthrown.  Bursa [Prusa] is taken from Byzantium in 1326.

1326-1359: Orxan / Orhan

1331-1354: Iznik (Nicea) is taken in 1331. Izmid (Nicomedia) is taken in 1337. Gelibolu (Kallipolis) is taken in 1354 . Ankara (Angora) is taken in 1354.

1359-1389: Murad I

1361-1387: Edirne (Adrianople) is taken in 1361. Konya (Iconium) is taken in 1387.  Thessalonica is taken in 1387.

1389-1402: Bayezid I Yildirim / Bayaat.  Defeated & imprisoned by Tamerlane at battle of Ankara.

1402-1421: Mehmed I

1421-1451: Murad II

1451-1481: Mehmed II Fatih (the Conqueror)

1453: Istanbul (Constantinople) is taken.  End of the Middle Ages.



Abbasid Caliphs of Egypt (1261 - 1517)

1261: Ahmad (al Mustansir)

1261-1302: Ahmad (al Hakim) I.  In Aleppo 1261 - 1262.

1302-1340: Sulayman (al Mustakfi) I

1340-1341: Ibrahim (al Wathiq) I

1341-1352: Ahmad (al Hakim) II

1352-1362: Abu Bakr (al Mutadid) I

1362-1377: Muhammad (al Mutawakkil) I

1377: Zakariyya (al Mutasim)

1377-1383: Muhammad (al Mutawakkil) I

1383-1386: Umar (al Wathiq) II

1386-1389: Zakariyya (al Mutasim)

1389-1406: Muhammad (al Mutawakkil) I

1406-1414: Abbas or Yaqub (al Mustain).  Sultan in 1412.

1414-1441: Dawud (al Mutadid) II

1441-1451: Sulayman (al Mustakfi) II

1451-1455: Hamza (al Qaim)

1453: Istanbul (Constantinople) is taken.  End of the Middle Ages.

1455-1479: Yusuf (al Mustanjid)

1479-1497: Abdul Aziz (al Mutawakkil) II

1497-1508: Yaqub (al Mustamsik)

1508-1516: al Mutawakkil III

1516- 1517: Yaqub (al Mustamsik)

1517: al Mutawakkil III

1517: Caliph transported to Istanbul by Ottoman Sultan Selim I Yavuz, later credited with assuming the Caliphate.




Source: The History Files (