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A Matter of Convenience

PICTURE GALLERY AND CREDITS

Historical Background

"Eastern Style" Toilet at the INA excavation camp at Bozborun, Turkey. [View 60K Low-Resolution JPEG]  Photograph by C. A. Powell.

The 1st Century CE Latrina at Ephesus, Turkey. [View 78K Lo-res JPEG] [123K Hi-res JPEG] Photograph by C. A. Powell.

The Rere-Dorter at Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk, England. There is an artificial stream channel flowing through the building. [View 69K Lo-res JPEG] [138K Hi-res JPEG] Photograph by C. A. Powell.

The Latrines at Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk. The supports held the floor above the artificial stream beneath. [View 66K Lo-res JPEG] [132K Hi-res JPEG] Photograph by C. A. Powell.

Another view at Castle Acre, showing how the outflow from the rere-dorter fed into a fish pond. The priory kitchens are in the background. [View 63K Lo-res JPEG] [138K Hi-res JPEG] Photograph by C. A. Powell.

Garderobes on a medieval castle. In this design, the waste discharged directly to the exterior and fell into the moat. [View 39K Lo-res JPEG] [54K Hi-res GIF] Drawing by C. A. Powell after Simmons, 18.

"Gardy Loo!" Woodcut showing a woman throwing her slops out an upper-floor window into the street beneath. [View 39K Lo-res GIF] [54K Hi-res GIF] Drawing by C. A. Powell after Reyburn, 49.

Building 5 at Port Royal

The deep cistern in Yard 5 of Building 5 at Port Royal, Jamaica. [View 69K Lo-res JPEG] [135K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

An INA diver examines the Building 5, Yard 5 cistern. [View 66K Lo-res JPEG] [123K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Site Plan of the Building 5 Area.

Artifact plan of Building 5, Yard 5. [27K Hi-res] Drawing from INA archives.

A possible reconstruction of the "House of Office" from Building 5, Yard 5, Port Royal [View 48K Low-Resolution JPEG] [144K High-Resolution JPEG] Drawing by C. A. Powell, based on excavation notes.

The south wall of Building 5, Room 1, near the House of Office. The plaster on the wall above the seat level of the privy is visible. [View 66K Lo-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Chamberpots: General

Chamberpot styles from the Potomac Typological System. From left to right, A, B, and C. [15K Hi-res GIF] Drawing from Beaudry, 67.

Four Chamberpots from Port Royal (From left to right, PR90 908-6, PR90 469-6, NS 2.A6.1c, and NS 2.A56.2a) [View 24K Lo-res JPEG] [39K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

A Port Royal Chamberpot in situ [View 69K Lo-res JPEG] [132K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Another Port Royal Chamberpot in situ [View 69K Lo-res JPEG] [138K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Chamberpots: Specific

Chamberpot NS.2.A6.1c from the New Street excavation in Port Royal [View 24K Lo-res JPEG] [39K Hi-res GIF] Drawing from INA archives.

Chamberpot NS.2.A56.2a from from the New Street excavation in Port Royal [View 21K Lo-res JPEG] [33K Hi-res GIF] Drawing from INA archives.

Chamberpot PR 87 415-10 from the 1987 underwater season at Port Royal. [12K Hi-res GIF] Drawing from INA archives.

Another view of 415-10 [View 51K Lo-res JPEG] [69K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Chamberpot PR90 469-6 from the 1990 underwater season at Port Royal. [View 69K Lo-res JPEG] [99K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Chamberpot PR90 908-6 from the 1990 underwater season at Port Royal. [View 78K Lo-res JPEG] [165K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.

Another view of PR90 908-6. [View 66K Lo-res JPEG] [120K Hi-res JPEG] Photo from INA archives.


Link to:

  1. A Matter of Convenience--Introduction
  2. A Matter of Convenience--Historical Background
  3. A Matter of Convenience--Dry Land Disposal
  4. A Matter of Convenience--Chamberpots
  5. A Matter of Convenience--Jamaican Sanitation
  6. A Matter of Convenience--The Building 5 Privy
  7. A Matter of Convenience--Port Royal Chamberpots
  8. A Matter of Convenience--Conclusions


Revised: 1 December 1996


Christine A. Powell
Nautical Archaeology Program
Texas A&M University
Home Page: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/