Nautical Archaeology of the Americas
ANTH318

Fall Semester 2008

 

Training questions for mid-term exam no. 1

Management of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (classes 1 to 4)


A. Multiple Choice Questions

The Philadelphia was a _____________________________.

A. War Sloop

B. Gunboat

C. Bateau

D. Barge

E. Brig

The Philadelphia sank in _____________________________________.

A. Lake Erie

B. Lake Champlain

C. Lake Michigan

D. the Hudson River

E. Lake George

The Alvin Clark was a _________________________________________.

A. Sloop

B. Two masted schooner

C. Three masted schooner

D. Full rigged ship

E. Brig

 

The Alvin Clark sank in _____________________________________.

A. Lake Erie

B. Lake Champlain

C. Lake Michigan

D. the Hudson River

E. Lake George

 

The Cairo was a ______________________________________________.

A. Confederate submarine

B. Union ironclad

C. Private steamship

D. Blockade runner

E. Privateer.

 

The Cairo sank in the _________________________________________.                          

A. Chattahoochee River

B. Trinity River

C. Mississippi River

D. Red River

E. Yazoo River      

 

"Pook Turtles" were __________________

A. Electrically detonated mines

B. Confederate submarines

C. Three-masted schooners

D. Four-masted schooners

E. Ironclad river gunboats designed by Samuel Pook

 

The Nuestra Senora de Atocha sunk near the 'Cayos del Marquez' in the ______century.

A. 15th

B. 16th

C. 17th

D. 18th

E. 19th

           

The Atocha's "mother load" was found in the mid _________________________.

A.1950s

B.1960s

C.1970s

D.1980s

E.1990s

           

The salvagers of the Dutch 18th century ship Geldermalsen are said to have dynamited the site to avoid claims from the government from which the large cargo of _________ was recovered.

A. Gold bars

B. Silver coins

C. Copper ingots

D. Chinese porcelain

E. Precious stones

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

 

Although treasure hunting consists more of finding investors than treasures, several wrecks, such as the ___________, the _____________, and the ______________ have actually produced treasure.

 

A chicken farmer converter into a treasure hunter, ______________ found the treasure of the Nuestra Señora de Atocha in the Marquesas Keys.

 

Found in 1985 by Michael Hatcher, the ___________________ was loaded with a large cargo of Chinese porcelain.

 

Allegedly because there were legal problems related to the ownership of its cargo, the ________________'s large load of Chinese porcelain was quickly sold at auction.

 

 

C. Short essay questions (5 to 10 lines)

 

Why do you think that the hull of the Atocha was not carefully recorded, following archaeological procedures? 

 

Can archaeologists and treasure hunters work together?

 

In what way are today's treasure hunters similar to 19th century archaeologists?

 

Can treasure hunting be a profitable investment?

 

Who were the wreckers?

 

What is a 'mail-box' and what are the main problems related to its use in the excavation of archaeological sites.

 

 

Understanding the Ship (classes 5 and 6)

 

A. Multiple Choice Questions

 

When moving in the direction of its bow, a ship is said to be moving ___________.

A. Forward

B. Aft

C. Astern

D. Abaft

E. Before

 

When moving in the direction of its stern, a ship is said to be moving ___________.

A. Forward

B. Aft

C. Astern

D. Abaft

E. Before

 

The mainmast stands ___________ the mizzenmast.

A. Forward

B. Aft

C. Astern

D. Abaft

E. Before

 

The mainmast stands ___________ the foremast.

A. Forward

B. Aft

C. Astern

D. Abaft

E. Before

 

The ________________ was a navigational instrument employed by 16th century European mariners to determine latitude.

A. Chronometer

B. Compass

C. Log and Sand Glass

D. Binnacle

E. Astrolabe

 

The ________________ was a navigational instrument employed by 18th century European mariners to determine longitude.

A. Chronometer

B. Compass

C. Log and Sand Glass

D. Binnacle

E. Astrolabe

 

The ________________ was a navigational instrument employed by 16th century European mariners to determine the direction of the North.

A. Chronometer

B. Compass

C. Log and Sand Glass

D. Binnacle

E. Astrolabe

 

The ________________ was a wooden box in which the compass was housed.

A. Chronometer

B. Sounding lead

C. Log and Sand Glass

D. Binnacle

E. Astrolabe

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

 

It was not possible to measure ______________ accurately until the 18th century, when the maritime models of the chronometer were developed.

 

The ship's _______ was used to ring the hours, call for meals, prayers, and watches.

 

By always pointing North, the __________ was used to find one's sailing direction.  These directions would be marked at regular intervals on a wooden board called ____________.

 

When shallows were suspected to be ahead, a _________________ was used to determine the depth.

 

Time flow was measured with _______________, which would be punctually turned by the ship's boys.

 

There were three main ways into the Caribbean Sea:  the ____________ passage, the ____________, and the ______________ passage.

 

From Seville, the ships were towed down the ______________ River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda.

 

New World fleets left Sanlúcar de Barrameda, in Spain, to the _____________ Islands, and from there, sailed West to the __________.

 

Once they arrived in the Lesser Antilles, the ships bound for the New World would separate and sail in many different directions, the most important being the _______________ fleet, bound for Cartagena, and the ______________ fleet, bound for Veracruz.

 

On their way back to Spain ships would assemble at ______________, in Cuba, and sail North and East, until a latitude of around ____ North, and then turned East and sailed straight to the Azores and the Portuguese coast.

 

 

C. Short essay questions

 

How was longitude measured (or estimated?) in the 16th century? 

 

What was the typical composition of a crew in a 16th century ship sailing to the New World?

 

What were the two main fleets bound for the New World?  What were their routes?

 

How many basic types of rigging may a three-masted vessel present?  Describe each one of them.

 

 

The Earliest Watercraft (class 7)

 

A. Multiple Choice Questions

 

Among the many types of craft used by the Eskimo people were the:

A. Kayaks and umiaks.

B. Kayaks and dugouts.

C. Umiaks and birch bark canoes.

D. Kayaks and bull-boats.

E. Birch bark canoes and dugouts.

 

The Pacific Northwest natives built canoes that Louis and Clark divided into two main groups: the smaller 'river canoes' and the larger 'ocean canoes.'

These were: 

A. Dugouts

B. Birch bark canoes

C. Skin canoes

D. Bull boats

E. Reed boats

 

The Great Plains natives built coracles by stretching one or two buffalo hides over a basket like structure.  These boats were called:

A. Dugouts

B. Birch bark canoes

C. Skin canoes

D. Bull boats

E. Reed boats

 

The Mayas used large ____________ for transport.

 

 

 

A. Dugouts

B. Birch bark canoes

C. Skin canoes

D. Bull boats

E. Reed boats

 

On the South American continent ______________ were extensively used.

A. Dugouts

B. Birch bark canoes

C. Skin canoes

D. Bull boats

E. Umiaks

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

 

Name three types of paddled craft utilized by the Native Americans upon the arrival of Christopher Columbus: ______________________, ________________________, and _____________________.

 

Name two types of paddled craft utilized by the Greenland Eskimos:  ____________________, and _________________________.

 

In the forests, where birch trees could be found, __________ canoes were made by forcing a framing system into a previously assembled tree-bark cover.

 

Eskimos used two distinctive types of craft.  ___________ were decked canoes fully watertight once its occupant laced his clothing to the rim of the manhole through which he sits.  ____________ were larger vessels with open decks and large keelsons and chine stringers.

 

 

 

 

C. Short essay questions

 

To a large extent, the type of watercraft used by the Native Americans before the arrival of Columbus was determined by the environment.  Please explain and give examples.

 

 

 

The Explorers (classes 8 to 10)

 

A. Multiple Choice Questions

 

The early Viking occupation site in the Americas, called L'Anse aux Meadows, is located in modern-day:

A. Iceland

B. Greenland

C. Newfoundland

D. Maine

E. New Brunswick

 

Columbus arrived in America for the first time in  __________.

A. 1482

B. 1492

C. 1498

D. 1502

E. 1533

 

The name "America" was first mentioned on a 1507 globe made by Martin Waldseemuller after the  Italian explorer ______________.

A. Columbus

B. Cabotto

C. Vespucci

D. Uso di Mare

E. da Noli

 

The first ship to circumnavigate the World left Spain in 1519 under the command of:

A. Vasco da Gama

B. Francisco Pizarro

C. Francis Drake

D. Columbus

E. Ferdinand Magellan

 

The Molasses reef wreck has been dated to the __________________________ century.

A. Early 16th

B. Middle 16th

C. Late 16th

D. Early 17th

E. Early 18th 

 

The hypothesis that the crew of the ship wrecked on the Molasses reef  might have been hunting for slaves was raised by the existence of  ___________________ aboard.

A. Guns

B. Swards

C. Leg irons

D. Versos

E. Bombardetas

 

A very unusual gun called falconete grande was found on the wreck site of the early 16th century shipwreck known as the _____________________ wreck.

A. Molasses reef

B. Highborn Cay

C. St. John's Bahamas

D. Bahía Mujeres

E. Cayo Nuevo  

 

The Highborn Cay ship was  __________________________ the Molasses Reef one.

A. Much smaller than

B. Much larger than

C. Similar to

D. Much older than

E. Much later than

 

Two haquebuts, a type of hand cannon, were found on the _______________ wreck.

A. Concepcion

B. Atocha

C. San Esteban

D. Molasses Reef

E. Cayo Nuevo 

 

Two lead objects, presumed to be the one-way pump valves, were found in the ______________ wreck.

A. Concepción

B. Atocha

C. San Esteban

D. Molasses Reef

E. Cayo Nuevo 

 

The Basque ship excavated in Red Bay is believed to be the ________________, lost in 1565.

A. San Antonio

B. San Pedro

C. San Juan

D. San Pablo

E. San Esteban

 

The Basque country is in ________________________.

A. Portugal

B. Spain

C. France

D. Portugal and Spain

E. Spain and France

 

The Red Bay ship was a _________________________.

A. Three masted galleon

B. Caravel

C. Nao

D. Three masted schooner

E. Brig

 

B. Fill in the blanks

 

Two Icelandic sagas describe early voyages, in the _________-century, to the New World.  It is believed that the ________________ voyaged to North America in their knarrs long before Columbus.

 

Name the three vessels that composed Columbus' fleet on his first voyage: ___________________, ________________________, and _______________________.

 

Between ________ and _________ Columbus made a total of four trips to the New World.

 

On his four trips to the New World Columbus lost a total of _______ ships.

 

During his first trip to the New World Columbus lost one of his vessels (the Santa Maria, on December 25, off Hispaniola) and built a settlement, which he called ______________.

 

On his second trip to the New World Columbus founded a city on the northern coast of Hispaniola, which he called _______________ to honor his queen.

 

Christopher Columbus founded two settlements in the New World.  The first was just a fort and was called _____________, where he left thirty-nine men after grounding one of his vessels on his first trip.  The second was a city called _____________, located on the northern coast of Hispaniola.

 

Name three types of guns found on the Molasses reef wreck: ______________________, ____________________, and ______________________________.

 

What is the name of the device utilized for raising and lowering the ship's anchors that was found on the Red Bay wreck: __________________________ .

 

Name three navigational instruments found on the Red Bay wreck: ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________________.

 

Name two types of whales hunted by the Basques of Red Bay: ________________________, and ____________________________.

 

In the video of the Basque whalers a widow is reported to have sent __________ to her husband, stranded in Newfoundland during the winter, with the first ship leaving the Basque country in early spring.

 

When his last two ships had to be beached, their hulls too damaged by the teredo worms to sail, Columbus found himself isolated in Jamaica.  Only a _________________, predicted in his German almanac to occur on the night of February 29 1504, saved him from starvation after the natives refused to feed his men.

 

_____________, ________________, and ________________, are only three of many agricultural products that came from the New World.

 

 

C. Short essay questions

 

Did Columbus find what he expected?

 

Why did Columbus believe that it was feasible to reach Japan sailing West? (name the three main reasons).

 

In 1488 Columbus asked, once again, for means from the king of Portugal to sail West.  Why was he refused these means this time?

 

 

The Spanish Empire (classes 11 and 12)

 

A. Multiple Choice Questions

 

The conquest of Mexico started in 1519 under the command of:

A. Francisco Pizarro

B. Hernán Cortés

C. Álvares Cabral

D. Ponce de Leon

E. Vasco da Gama

 

The conquest of Peru started in 1533 under the command of:

A. Francisco Pizarro

B. Hernán Cortés

C. Álvares Cabral

D. Ponce de Leon

E. Vasco da Gama

 

In the Treaty of  ____________________ Spain and Portugal agreed in 1494 to divide ownership of  (or influence over) the non-European world along a line stretching from pole to pole, 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.

A. Westphalia  

B. New Granada

C. Versailles    

D. Tordesillas

E. Lisbon-Madrid

 

The Portuguese navigator _____________________ discovered and claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500.

A. Francisco Pizarro

B. Hernán Cortés

C. Álvares Cabral

D. Ponce de Leon

E. Vasco da Gama

 

The Padre Island wrecks were lost in ___________.

A. 1492

B. 1554

C. 1559

D. 1623

E. 1621

 

The Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe was a vessel specially built for the transport of _______________ in the early 18th century.

A. Silver

B. Gold

C. Mercury

D. Iron

E. Porcelain

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

 

The three most important ports in the 16th century Spanish New World were __________, in Cuba, _______________, in Mexico, near the city of Veracruz, and ______________, in today's Colombia.

 

The two main goods shipped from Manila to Acapulco in the 16th century were  ________________ and __________________________.

 

The most important merchandise shipped from Lima, Peru, to Panama City after the discovery of the important mines at Potosí was __________.

 

The ships wrecked in Padre Island in the mid 16th century were called    ____________________,  __________________, and _____________________.

 

The Atocha sank during a storm in _______.

 

Once arrived in the Caribbean the Spanish fleet divided into two independent fleets: the __________________, bound to Veracruz, and the ________________, sailing to today's Colombia.

 

The ______________________________ was a Manila galleon bound for Acapulco that wrecked in 1638 on the Mariana Islands.

 

The Manila galleon Nuestra Señora de la Concepción lost in the Marianas islands in 1638 was salvaged by ______________, who tried to apply strict archaeological standards to his work and managed to keep the collection of artifacts together.

 

The ______________________________ was a New Spain fleet galleon bound for Spain that wrecked in 1641 on a reef known as the Silver Bank, on the northern coast of Hispaniola.

 

The ______________________________ cargo was partially recovered by a lumber trader from Massachusetts called William Phipps in 1687.

 

Part of the remaining cargo was recovered in the 1980s by ________________ another treasure hunter, and in the 1990s by _______________, another treasure hunter.

 

____________________ was a lumber trader that in 1687 found the wreck site of the Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, lost in 1641 on the Silver Banks, north of Hispaniola.  (Later, as governor of Massachusetts, he absolved the last victims of the Salem witch trials).

 

A small contractor named __________________ found the first wreck sites of the Spanish fleet of 1715, lost off the eastern coast of Florida.

 

The _______________________and ________________ sank in July 1624 while sailing from Cadiz to Veracruz, via Havana.

 

The Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and Conde de Tolosa sank in July 1624 while sailing from ________ to _____________.

 

The Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and Conde de Tolosa sank in July 1624 while sailing from Cadiz to Veracruz, via Havana, with a large load of __________________.

 

 

 

C. Short essay questions

 

Write a short account of the fate of the Padre Island ships, their loss, their recovery, the study and conservation of the material culture found on their wreck sites, and the importance of their story.

 

Write a short account of the fate of the fleets of 1715 and 1733, their loss, their recovery, the study and conservation of the material culture found on their wreck sites, and the importance of their story.

 

Write a short account of the fate of the cargo of the galleon Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, lost in 1641 on the Silver Banks, north of Hispaniola since Veracruz to our time...  Its many salvage attempts, its several salvors, and their stories.

 

Write a short account of the fate of the San Diego, lost in 1600 in the Philippines, its loss and recovery, and the importance of its story.