Nautical Archaeology of the Americas
ANTH318

Fall Semester 2008

 

Training questions for mid-term exam no. 3

 

 

General

Order the following ten events by decades, as shown below:  First canals: Schuylkill & Susquehanna and Potomac.  Isambard Brunel builds the Great Western.  Down-Easters develop as large sq.-rigged ships for the transport of grain to Europe.  John Fitch's first steamship.  Robert Fulton's North River Steamship.    Lake Champlain Steamboat Company launches the Phoenix.  Treaty opens Chinese ports to American vessels: clippers!  New Bedford is the largest whaling port in America with 329 whalers.  Erie Canal completed.  Thomas W. Lawson, the only 7-masted schooner ever built, lost in the Scilly Islands.

 

 

1780s.

 

1830s.

 

1790s.

 

1840s.

 

1800s.

 

1850s.

 

1810s.

 

1860s.

 

1820s.

 

1900s.

 

 

Transportation Revolution on Inland Waters  (class 24)

A. Multiple Choice Questions

In 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company was formed by French traders, and soon English settlers followed.  It established a series of trading posts on the coast, profiting from a network of canoe routes that had already been established by the _______________.

a) Portuguese Explorers;  b) French Explorers;  c) English Explorers;  d) Dutch Explorers;  e) Native Americans.

In the 19th century ___________________________, the wife of a worker in the Hudson Bay Company traveled with the voyageurs and painted a set of realistic scenes of their life.

a) Aphra Behn;  b) Frances Anne Hopkins; 

c) Virginia Woolf;  d) Alma Mahler;  e) Rosa Luxemburg

The first large-scale canal was the ______________ Canal in Pennsylvania (1783).

a) Erie;  b) Potomac;  c) Schuylkill & Susquehanna;  d) Suez;  e) Panama

The English writer ___________________ described a voyage in a canal boat in the US.  They are especially good for cargo:  ore, coal, grain, stone.

a) Thomas Hardy;  b) Jane Austen;  c) Emily Brontë;  d) Charles Dickens;  e) Lewis Carroll

 

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

In 1670 the _____________ Company was formed by ____________ explorers, to trade fur with the natives along the rivers in today's northern Canada. 

Typically, the cargo was brought from the St. Lawrence River to Fort William or Grand Portage on the west bank of Lake Superior on large 36 ft., 4 ton canoes called ___________________ (later on sloops) and then transshipped to smaller 25 ft., 1.5 ton canoes called ________________.

Artist _____________________ (1838 - 1913) paintings often depict her keen sense of observation which give her paintings a rare accuracy in every detail. ________ and her husband Edward, who served as private secretary to Governor George Simpson of the Hudson Bay Company, are often portrayed in her paintings.

After the end of the War of 1812, America saw a great revolution in its communications. Three main routes were developed:

The Northern Gateway- from ___________ to the _____________, up the Hudson to Lake Champlain and the St Lawrence River, and westward across the Great Lakes.

The Northeastern Gateway- from _____________ to _____________ and Wheeling on the Ohio River, was mainly an overland way.

The Southern Gateway- from _____________ to _____________, ran along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, or westwards along the Missouri River.

Canals are a good, cheap and effective way to transport goods.  4 horses can carry 1 ton for ___ miles when pulling a wagon;  and _____ tons for 24 miles when pulling a barge.

Canals were first developed, on an industrial scale, by the _________ in the 16th century.  The French also developed a network of canals for transportation during the 18th century, followed by the __________ in the late 18th century.

The Erie Canal: started in 1817-1819 to run from ________ to _________.  It was completed in 1825.  The tolls were $5 per ton!!  It was a major financial success.

Canal boats could be propelled by _________, ___________, or steam.  Steamers would have propellers and tow other barges.

In the 1820s the __________, another way to transport people and goods (overland) made its first appearance.  At the time it did not seem very threatening for the canal business.

Sailing canal boats were a specialized kind of canal boats, with ___________________, ________________, shallow drafts, barn door rudders, and boxy sections.

Canal boats would typically last ______ years and would be paid for after ________ years. 

 

C. Short essay questions (5 to 10 lines)

Write a small essay on the history of canals in the USA, their beginning, development and decay.  You should mention the political, financial, and technical aspects that determined the success of canals in America.

Describe a sailing canal boat, mentioning how it was built, when, by whom, how it operated, where and when its importance diminished, and why.

 

D. Identification questions

In two or three lines, identify the following vessels (please indicate three clues for each vessel, such as place and approximate date of loss, date it was found, type of vessel, nationality, particular features, etc.)

General Butler _________________________________________________________________

 

In two or three lines, describe the following types of vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each type, such as the primary routes, the approximate date of appearance, the main purpose of its construction, the approximate date of its disappearance, the main reasons for its demise, etc.).  Name one vessel of each type as a characteristic example.

Canal boats  ___________________________________________________________________

Sailing canal boats ______________________________________________________________

Bateaux _______________________________________________________________________

Canots de maitre _______________________________________________________________

Northern canoes ________________________________________________________________

 

E. Timeline

Order the following events, with 1 as the earliest and 5 as the latest:  Completion of the Erie Canal; Building of the first leg of the Erie Canal; Building the Potomac Canal; Building of the Schuylkill & Susquehanna canal; Appearance of the first trains in America.

 

 

Steam (class 25)

A. Multiple Choice Questions

In the late 17th century, a French engineer named _______________ produced the first known steam engine with a piston.

a) Jouffroy d'Abbons; b) Thomas Newcomen;  c) Matthew Boulton;  d) James Watt;  e) Denys Papin.

In 1735, an Englishman named ________________ created a steam engine capable of pumping water out of a mineshaft.

a) Jouffroy d'Abbons;  b) Thomas Newcomen;  c) Matthew Boulton;  d) James Watt;  e) Denys Papin.

In 1776 and 1783, another Frenchman, the Marquis ______________, managed to propel a vessel with a steam engine.  Vibrations, however, made it impossible to utilize the state of the art engine.

a) Jouffroy d'Abbons;  b) Thomas Newcomen;  c) Matthew Boulton;  d) James Watt;  e) Denys Papin.

Towards the end of the 18th century, a Scottish inventor named _________________ improved the steam engine and made it possible to propel vessels. 

a) Jouffroy d'Abbons;  b) Thomas Newcomen;  c) Matthew Boulton;  d) James Watt;  e) Denys Papin.

Not a very gifted businessman, Watt was lucky enough to find an optimistic and dynamic partner in _________________.

a) Jouffroy d'Abbons;  b) Thomas Newcomen;  c) Matthew Boulton;  d) James Watt;  e) Denys Papin.

 

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

In 1790, an American named _____________ built a vessel named _______________ and created the first commercial steamboat venture in the New World, running up and down the Delaware River at a speed of 6 to 8 knots.

After testing both stern and side mounted paddle wheels, ______________, and even a _______________, Fitch selected a peculiar system of vertical paddles.

It was very expensive, and could not compete with the ____________ running on the banks of the river.  Besides, many were afraid of this noisy "___________________."

However, Americans raced to take advantage of this new technology, and names like ________________ or ____________________ are associated with steamboat commercial ventures in the last years of the 18th century. 

A Board of Patent Commissioners was created, chaired by ________________________, and patent wars delayed the adoption of practical steam navigation until _____________.

In 1802, an American named ___________________ created a commercial society with Robert Livingston - the U.S. Minister to France largely responsible for the Louisiana Purchase - and in 1807 got a 16-year monopoly of steam navigation in the state of New York.  His first vessel was called the ___________________________, which made the 150-mile voyage between New York and Albany in 32 hours, averaging a speed of 5 miles per hour.

In _________ these two partners got a navigation monopoly for the Territory of Louisiana that would last until _________.   

In 1811 a man named __________________ challenged the monopoly on the state of New York by launching two vessels in the Hudson River: the __________ and the Perseverance.

After being forced out of the Hudson River, the steam boat promoter ________________ moved to Lake Champlain in 1812 where his first steamship was commandeered by Thomas Macdonough, becoming the schooner ____________________.

The Fulton / Livingston steam transport monopoly broke-up in _________ after a ___ -year monopoly on the State of New York.

In his novel _______________________, American writer _________________ wrote that in 1840 the distance between St Louis and Cairo, Illinois (200 miles) had an average of one wreck per mile.

 

C. Short essay questions (5 to 10 lines)

Choose one vessel from the list below and describe it, mentioning the circumstances of its construction, loss, finding, excavation, reconstruction, and display.  Elaborate on the importance of the wrecks you have picked, from an archaeological, historical, and cultural point of view.

Phoenix

Lady Sherbrooke

Black Cloud

Bertrand.

 

D. Identification questions

In two or three lines, identify the following vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each vessel, such as place and approximate date of construction, date in which it was lost, type of vessel, particular features, etc.)

Phoenix _____________________________________________________________________

Lady Sherbrooke ______________________________________________________________

Black Cloud __________________________________________________________________

Bertrand _____________________________________________________________________

 

In two or three lines, describe the following types of vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each type, such as the primary routes, approximate date of appearance, main purpose of its construction, approximate date of its disappearance, main reasons for its demise, etc.).  Name one vessel of each type as a characteristic example.

Steam ships ____________________________________________________________________

Western Steamboats _____________________________________________________________

Packet boats ____________________________________________________________________

Mountain boats __________________________________________________________________

Towboats _______________________________________________________________________

Ferryboats ______________________________________________________________________

Showboats ______________________________________________________________________

 

E. Timeline

Order the following events, with 1 as the earliest and 5 as the latest:  Creation of the Fulton / Livingstone monopoly on the State of New York; End of the Fulton / Livingstone monopoly on the State of New York; Creation of the Fulton / Livingstone monopoly on the Territory of Louisiana;  End of the Fulton / Livingstone monopoly on the Territory of Louisiana;  Creation of the Lake Champlain Steamboat Company.

.

 

American Enterprise in the 19th Century (class 26)

A. Multiple Choice Questions

Built by Isambard Brunnel in 1844 the ____________________ was built of iron, measuring 84 m (274 ft.) and displacing 3,270 tons.  For propulsion she had a propeller and six masts.

a) Great Britain;  b) Niantic;  c) Great Republic;  d) Snow Squall;  e) Arctic.

Built by Alfred Butler in 1851 in South Portland, Maine, the _______________ was 50 m (163 ft.) long and had 742 registered tons.  In 1854 it won a race from China to New York against McKay's Romance of the Seas.

a) Great Britain;  b) Niantic;  c) Great Republic;  d) Snow Squall;  e) Arctic.

Built by Donald McKay in New York in 1853, the ____________________ was 102 m (334 ft.) long and had 4,555 registered tons.  With 4 decks and a crew of 130, it was intended to be the best clipper ever built.  Unfortunately it burned to the water line before its first voyage.

a) Great Britain;  b) Niantic;  c) Great Republic;  d) Snow Squall;  e) Arctic.

Built in Connecticut in 1853 the _________________ was a China packet that was converted into a whaler in 1844.  In 1849 it was transformed into a packet again and sailed to San Francisco, where it became the first storeship.

a) Great Britain;  b) Niantic;  c) Great Republic;  d) Snow Squall;  e) Arctic.

In 1847 the ________________ was one of the Edward Collins' ships, running between New York and Liverpool in the Collins Line. 

a) Great Britain;  b) Niantic;  c) Great Republic;  d) Snow Squall;  e) Arctic.

The Great Eastern was ready in 1857 after bankrupting three consecutive sets of investors.  It never made a profit.  Its creator was ________________.

a) Adam Brown;  b) Alfred Butler;  c) Isambard Brunnel;  d) Elihu Bunker;  e) Donald McKay.

The best-known American shipwright is ______________, who built the Flying Cloud, which sailed New York - San Francisco in 89 days, and the Sovereign of the Seas, which achieved 22 knots of top speed, an unmatched record.

a) Adam Brown;  b) Alfred Butler;  c) Isambard Brunnel;  d) Elihu Bunker;  e) Donald McKay.

 

 

 

B. Fill in the blanks

In the beginning of the 19th century, European immigrants sailed to America in wooden ships that would take from ___ to _____ weeks to cover the distance between the two continents.  By the end of the century, there were regular packet lines, and immense steam ships that could cover that distance in ____ days.

During the 19th century the New England whaling fleet is said to have discovered more than _____ islands in the _____________.

During this time, the American merchant fleet sailed all the world's seas in search of new markets and products.  Write the names of four major imported products into America, and four major exports carried by this merchant fleet:

Imports: ________________, __________________, ________________, and _______________.

Exports: ________________, __________________, ________________, and _______________.

During the 18th century, coastal trade was carried out by __________, ____________, and small square-rigged vessels.

During the 18th century, long distance sea trade was carried out by two-masted (________) and three-masted (________) square-rigged vessels.

In the 19th century, coastal trade, and some of the long distance sea trade, was carried mainly on two-masted _____________, which evolved into the three-, four-, and five masted ______________ towards the end of the century.

Exceptions to this type of fore-and-aft rigged craft are the square-rigged ________________, and ______________, that engaged, respectively, in the China tea trade and in the California cereal transport.

In 1818, the British __________ Line started a regular operation between New York and ______________.  Now ships would leave port at regular dates with or without full holds.

In 1824 there were regularly scheduled routes from New York to ___________ and ___________.

When gold was found at ______________ in Coloma, California, in December ______________, people from all over the world rushed to California. 

Anything afloat was pressed into the service of transporting settlers and goods to California.  Once the ships arrived in ___________________, the crews often disappeared and the ships would remain in port with no way to sail back.  Some were transformed into __________________.

In the summer of 1870 the French writer _______________ published a book called Une ville flottante (A Floating City) in which the main subject is the ship ______________________.

By 1840, New England ships engaged in 4-year voyages to hunt whales in the _________ and _______ oceans.

The five most hunted species of whales were the __________________,  ____________________, ____________________,  ____________________,  and ____________________.

The main products extracted from whales were:

__________, used for lamp fuel, lubricant and softener for rope-making fibers;

___________, used to make candles, fine lubricants, and industrial detergents;

___________, used for women's corset stays, umbrella ribs, and buggy whips;

___________, from sperm whale teeth, was carved into several decorative items;

___________, found in the stomach of diseased animals for the perfume industry.

Whaling was threatened by the introduction of ____________ illumination in the 1850s, and the discovery of _______________ in Pennsylvania in 1859.  During the Civil War, many whalers were sunk to protect the entrance of southern ports, while others were simply captured and sunk by Confederate warships. 

 

C. Short essay questions (10 to 30 lines)

Write a short essay (about 20 lines) about only one of the themes below.

New England whaling in the 19th century.

The era of the clipper ships.

Isambard Brunnel's creations.

 

D. Identification questions

In two or three lines, identify the following vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each vessel, such as place and approximate date of construction, date in which it was lost, type of vessel, particular features, etc.)

Great Eastern __________________________________________________________________

Great Britain ___________________________________________________________________

Great Western __________________________________________________________________

Niantic ________________________________________________________________________

Great Republic __________________________________________________________________

Snow Squall ____________________________________________________________________

George R. Skolfield _______________________________________________________________

Arctic __________________________________________________________________________

Thomas Lawson _________________________________________________________________

 

In two or three lines, describe the following types of vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each type, such as the primary routes, approximate date of appearance, type of rigging, main purpose of its construction, approximate date of its disappearance, main reasons for its demise, etc.).  Name one vessel of each type as a characteristic example.

Clipper ships  _________________________________________________________________

Down-Easters __________________________________________________________________

Large schooners ________________________________________________________________

Whalers  ______________________________________________________________________

'Storeships'  ___________________________________________________________________

 

 

American Civil War (class 28)

A. Multiple Choice Questions

The Denbigh was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Alabama was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Virginia was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Picket was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Alligator was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Pioneer was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Monitor was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Cairo was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Chattahoochee was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Shenandoah was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

The Hunley was a ______________.

a) Blockade runner;  b) Commerce raider;  c) Ironclad;  d) Gunboat;  e) Submarine

 

B. Fill in the blanks

The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate General ___________ opened fire on Fort _______ in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.

Name three advantages of the northern states at the beginning of the war.

____________________,  _______________________,  _________________________.

Name three advantages of the confederate states at the beginning of the war.

____________________,  _______________________,  _________________________.

Name the three main causes generally appointed as leading to the southern secession.

____________________,  _______________________,  _________________________.

 

C. Short essay questions (10 to 30 lines)

Write a short essay on one of the following subjects:

The southern and northern strategies during the civil war.

The civil war on the sea.

 

D. Identification questions

In two or three lines, identify the following vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each vessel, such as place and approximate date of construction, date in which it was lost, type of vessel, particular features, etc.)

Denbigh _______________________________________________________________________

Alabama _______________________________________________________________________

Virginia _______________________________________________________________________

Picket _________________________________________________________________________

Alligator _______________________________________________________________________

Pioneer ________________________________________________________________________

Monitor ________________________________________________________________________

Cairo __________________________________________________________________________

Chattahoochee __________________________________________________________________

Shenandoah _____________________________________________________________________

Hunley _________________________________________________________________________

 

In two or three lines, describe the following types of vessels (please indicate at least three clues for each type, such as the primary routes, approximate date of appearance, main purpose of its construction, approximate date of its disappearance, main reasons for its demise, etc.).  Name one vessel of each type as a characteristic example.

Ironclads  _____________________________________________________________________

Submersibles  _________________________________________________________________

Gunboats  ____________________________________________________________________

Commerce raiders _____________________________________________________________

Blockade runners ______________________________________________________________