Nautical Archaeology of the Americas
ANTH318

 

 

318 - Nautical Archaeology of the Americas - Timeline

 

 

1415

Portuguese conquer Ceuta

1419

Discovery of Madeira islands

1427

Discovery of the Azores

1433

Gil Eanes rounds Cape Bojador

1488

Bartolomeu Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope

1492

Columbus 1st voyage

1493

Columbus 2nd voyage

1494

Treaty of Tordesillas

1497

Giovanni Caboto sails to Newfoundland

1497

Vasco da Gama sails to India (1497-98)

1497

Amerigo Vespucci 1st voyage (Caribbean)

1498

Columbus 3rd voyage

1499

Amerigo Vespucci 2nd voyage (South America)

1500

Pedro Alvares Cabral discovers Brazil

1502

Columbus 4th voyage

 

Molasses Reef Wreck (before 1515)

 

Highborn Cay Wreck (before 1525)

1513

Ponce de Leon discovers Florida

1513

Balboa sees the Pacific Ocean

1514

Portuguese arrive in China

1519

Cortez starts the conquest of Mexico

1519

Magellan circumnavigation (1519-22)

1523

Giovanni Verrazano sails along the coast of North America to Newfoundland

1533

Pizarro starts the conquest of Peru

1534

Jacques Cartier sails up the St. Lawrence river

 

Bahia Mujeres Wreck (before 1550)

1539

de Soto explores the SE of North America (1539-42)

1540

Coronado explores the SW of North America (1549-42)

1542

Cabrillo sails up the W coast

1545

Spanish discover Potosi

 

Caio Nuevo Wreck (c. 1550)

1554

Wrecks of Padre Island: Espiritu Santo, Sta. Maria de Yciar and San Esteban

 

Huguenot colonies in Brazil (1550s)

 

Emanuel Point Wreck (1559)

1562

Charles Fort, Huguenot settlement in South Carolina

1562

John Hawkins first voyage to the West Indies

1564

Second Huguenot colony in Florida

1564

John Hawkins second voyage to the West Indies

1565

Spanish settle in St. Augustine

1572

Drake's attack on Nombre de Dios

1576

Martin Frobisher tries to find a Western passage to India

1577

Drake's circumnavigation (1577-80)

1585

Roanoke

1587

Roanoke, second attempt

1588

Spain fails in the invasion of England (the Armada)

1606

Virginia Company of London

1607

Jamestown

1609

Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River

1609

Samuel Champlain explores Lake Champlain

 

Sea Venture lost in the Bermudas (1609)

1610

Dutch fur trading post in Manhattan (New Amsterdam)

1613

Samuel Champlain in the Great Lakes

1619

First African slaves in Virginia

1620

Plymouth Colony

 

N. S. de Atocha and Sta. Margarita Wrecks (1622)

1624

Virginia Company passes to the English Government

1628

Piet Heyn seized 4,000,000 ducats from the Spanish off the coast of Cuba

1626

New Netherlands, Dutch colony in New Jersey and Manhattan

1627

English settle in Barbados

 

Wreck of the N. S. de la Concepcion off Hispaniola (1641)

1655

Jamaica taken from the Spanish

 

Merchants start settling at Port Royal (c. 1660)

1664

English seize New Netherlands

1682

La Salle sails down the Mississippi River

 

La Salle looses the Belle at matagorda Bay (1686)

1686

William Phipps salvages 32 tons of silver from the N. S. de la Concepcion (1686-88)

1689

King William's War (1689-1697)

1690

W. Phipps fails to conquer Quebec City and looses the Mary, Mary Ann, Hanna and Mary, and Elizabeth and Mary.

1692

William Phipps is made governor of Massachusetts

1692

Salem Witchcraft Trials

1692

June 7 - Earthquake destroys Port Royal

1702

Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)

1715

Silver Fleet lost off the East Coast of Florida

 

N. S. de Guadalupe and Conde de Tolosa Wrecks (1724)

1733

Silver Fleet lost in the Straights of Florida

 

Brown's Ferry Vessel - Periauger (c. 1740)

1744

King George's War (1744-1748)

 

Reader's Point Vessel - Sloop in St. Anne's Bay, Jamaica

 

Clydesdale Plantation Vessel - Sloop on the Back River, near Savannah, Georgia.

 

Ronson Ship - New York (before 1750)

 

5 Bateaux (before 1752) under the Museum of Civilization, Quebec City

1755

French and Indian War (1755-1763)

 

Land Tortoise - a Radeau, on Lake George (1758)

 

3 Bateaux (1758?) on Lake George

 

Boscawen - Sloop, on Lake Champlain (1759)

 

Machault - 28 gun frigate, on Ristigouche River, Chaleur Bat, Gulf of St. Lawrence. (1760)

1774

Intolerable Acts

 

Philadelphia - Gunboat, on Lake Champlain (1776)

1776

Declaration of Independence

 

HMS Augusta - British 64-gun ship lost in Philadelphia (1777)

1778

France at war with England

 

Defense - American privateer, (170 ton brig) lost at Penobscot Bay (1779)

 

Bonhomme Richard - 900 ton French merchantman converted into a warship, lost off the British Isles (1779)

 

HMS Charon - British 44-gun ship lost at Yorktown (1781)

 

Betsy - (44YO88) 170 ton brig sunk at Yorktown (1781)

1783

Peace between England and the United States

1786

John Fitch's steamship (with oars)

1790

John Fitch's steamship (with duck feet)

 

First canals: Schuylkill & Susquehanna (Pennsylvania), Potomac (then Virginia) (1790s)

1796

USS United States built.

1797

USS Constellation and USS Constitution built.

1800

USS Chesapeake, USS President, USS Congress built.

1807

Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, the 1st commercially successful steamboat

1809

Winan brothers launch the steamship Vermont on lake Champlain

1812

War of 1812 (1812-1815)

 

Atlantic Ocean

 

June 18,1812: USS President beat HMS Little Belt.

 

August 19,1812: USS Constitution beat HMS Guerriere.

 

October 30,1812: USS United States beat HMS Macedonian.

 

December 29,1812: USS Constitution beat HMS Java.

 

September 1814: General Armstrong attacked at Faial.

 

Lake Erie

 

1813: Lieutenant Oliver Hazard Perry was entrusted with the lake's defense.

 

February 1813: shipwrights Adam and Noah Brown started the construction of 2 brigs, Lawrence and Niagara, a small schooner, 2 gunboats, and 14 small boats, together with a series of houses and barracks.

 

September 10, 1813: Perry met and defeated his British opponent, Robert Barclay.

 

Lake Ontario

 

Wreck of the Hamilton and the Scourge - Merchant Schooners, on Lake Ontario (1813)

 

Lake Champlain

 

Winter of 1813-1814: Macdonough began the construction of a squadron at Vergennes, Vermont.

 

Winter and spring of 1814 Noah Brown built Macdonough's 26-gun flagship Saratoga in just 40 days.

 

July 23, 1814: two hundred shipwrights under the direction of Adam Brown (brother of Noah) laid the keel for 20-gun brig Eagle at Vergennes, built in 19 days.

 

September 11, 1814: Macdonough beat the Royal Navy squadron on Lake Champlain.

1815

Lake Champlain Steamboat Company begins operation by launching the Phoenix

 

Phoenix - a 336 tons steamship, caught fire on Lake Champlain (1819)

 

Great Western - built in 1838 in England by Isambard Brunel, finacial disaster.

 

Great Britain - built in 1843 in England by Brunel, financial disaster.

1817

Works on the Erie canal start: the 1st section (Ithaca-Rome) is completed by 1819

 

Train appears, but does not look like much of a threat. (1820s)

1823

Champlain canal opens (around 60 miles long)

1825

Erie Canal completed

1825

Canal boom (1825-1845)

 

Trains take off (1840s)

1844

Treaty opens Chinese ports to American vessels - Clippers!

1846

Peak of the American whaling fleet, with 736 ships registered

1848

December, gold found on Sutter's Mill, Colona, California

 

Niantic - Small packet built in 1835, converted into a whaler in 1844, later 1st San Francisco storeship (1849)

 

Great Eastern - built in 1854 in England by Brunel, another financial disaster

 

Indiana - Steamship (propeller) built in 1848 in Vermilion, Ohio, lost in Lake Superior (1856)

1857

New Bedford is the largest whaling port with 329 whalers.

 

Down-Easters develop as large sq.-rigged ships for the transport of grain from California to Europe (1860s)

1861

American Civil War (1861-1865)

1861

Brutus de Villeroi's Confederate submarine caught in the Delaware River

 

CSS Virginia - Ironclad, abandoned and burned in the Elizabeth River (1862)

 

USS Monitor - Ironclad, sunk while being towed off N. Carolina coast (1862)

 

USS Cairo - Ironclad on the Yazoo River (1862)

 

Chattahoochee - Confederate Gunboat exploded and sunk in the Chattahoochee River (1863)

1863

McClintock, Watson and Hunley built their 3rd submarine; later it will be called CSS H.L.Hunley

 

CSS H.L.Hunley sinks for the 3rd time, killing its 3rd crew (1864)

 

Alvin Clark - two-masted schooner, on Lake Michigan (1864)

 

Snow Squal - Small clipper built in 1851 abandoned in the Falkland Islands (1864)

 

Denbigh - Blockade runner lost trying to enter the harbor at Galveston (1865)

 

Bertrand - Western Steamboat, lost on the Missouri River (1853)

 

General Butler - Sailing canal boat wrecked on Lake Champlain (1876)

 

Down-Easters reconverted into schooner-rigged vessels with 3 and 4 masts (1880s)

1888

First 5-masted schooner

1900

First of ten 6 -masted schooners

1902

Thomas W. Lawson - Only 7-masted schooner, lost in the Scilly Islands (1907)

 

George R. Skolfield - One of the last "Down-Easters", built in 1885, grounded at Sea Isle, New Jersey (1929)