LECTURE - Ceramic Terms:
Earthenware - a wide variety of ceramics containing a fairly low proportion of silica and which are not vitrified because of comparatively low firing temperatures. Most earthenwares must be sealed with a glaze as they are absorbent to liquids.
Lead Glaze -a low-temperature glaze made of finely ground clay which contains silica and alumina and to which is added lead oxide as a flux. This was the standard glaze for 18th-century earthenware.
Stoneware - a ceramic body in which the proportion of silica is high enough that when fired to a sufficiently high temperature, partial vitrification occurs. Stonewares are generally nonporous and do not absorb liquids.
Porcelain - a totally vitrified ceramic body composed of kaolin, petuntse or similar clays with a fairly high proportion of silicates. Porcelains are fired to higher temperatures than either earthenwares or stonewares.
Porcelain, American - The first American porcelain factory was opened by Gousse Bonnin and George Anthony Morris in Philadelphia and operated between 1770 and 1772 with little success. The first successful porcelain factory in America was operated by William Tucker in Philadelphia, between 1826 and 1838.
Tin Glaze - a lead-based glaze to which tin oxide has been added to make it opaque and white.
Delftware - a tin-enameled earthenware glazed with a lead-based glaze made white and opaque by the addition of tin oxide as a flux. Dutch Delftware is always written with an upper case 'D,' while English delftware is written with a lower case 'd.' D & d distinction no longer in use. Delft is used for English tin-enamel ware, and Dutch tin-enamel is called majolica when it is glazed only on the interior surface, and faience when it is glazed on both surfaces.
Andries, Jasper - in partnership with Jacob Janson, he established the first tin-enameled earthenware factory in England in 1567. Andries and Janson, originally from Antwerp, later moved their operation to London, near Aldgate, circa 1625.
Slipware / Slip Decorated - a form of decoration using colored liquid clay. Decoration may be applied haphazardly or dribbled, trailed or combed into specific patterns. Multi-colored slips may be found overlapping each other and usually covered with a clear (appears yellowish due to impurities in the glaze) lead-based glaze.
Salt Glaze - ON STONEWARE: a high-temperature glaze which is formed through the addition of common salt into the kiln at its highest temperature. Vaporized sodium combines with the silica on the surface of the vessels creating a glossy, hard glaze. Salt glazes are characterized by an 'orange peel' texture and are only used on stonewares.
Slip Casting - a technique developed in England around 1745 in which slip is poured into a plaster mold. The plaster mold absorbs moisture from the slip, forming a layer of more solid clay near the mold surface. Excess slip is poured out and the mold is allowed to dry. After opening the mold, the thin-walled vessel can be decorated and fired.
White Salt Glazed Stoneware plates - plates developed in England by John Dwight around 1745, using kaolin clay. The plates are slip-cast in plaster molds and fired in a stoneware kiln to produce a very hard, white, durable tableware; a number of intricate rim patterns; first matched set of tableware.
Dwight, John - credited with establishing the first salt-glazed stoneware manufactory in England circa 1672-73, at Fulham. He produced brown iron oxide decorated stonewares and may have produced cobalt blue and manganese purple decorated wares. He is most noted for his development of English white salt-glazed stoneware plates in 1740
Littler, William - proprietor of the pottery factory at Longhall in Staffordshire which produced earthenware, porcelains, and salt-glazed vessels. He was most noted for his shiny cobalt blue glaze used on white salt-glazed stoneware.
Wedgwood, Josiah - one of the most famous English potters and ceramic innovators of the 18th century. He was born in 1730 and died in 1795, having introduced a number of extremely popular wares to the western world, such as, Creamware, Pearlware, Caneware, Dry Bodied Stonewares, and Jasperwares.
Whieldon, Thomas - (of Fenton) became a partner of Josiah Wedgwood in the late 1750s; also produced refined earthenware known today as Refined Agateware, Clouded and Tortoiseshell Earthenware.
Whieldon Wares: low-fired earthenware, colored lead glazed, same clay as white salt-glazed stoneware and used same molds.
green glaze - 1760 - cauliflower, pineapple
tortoiseshell - streaked brown, 1740s
Creamware or Queen's Ware - a refined earthenware developed by Josiah Wedgwood in 1762 which became extremely popular and dominated the ceramic tastes of the western world during the third quarter of the 18th century.
Pearlware or Pearl White - a refined earthenware developed by Josiah Wedgwood, which is whiter than Creamware due to the addition of kaolin clay in the body and a small amount of cobalt oxide in the glaze. Pearlware was first introduced in 1779.
Pearlware/Whiteware decoration techniques:
Maker's Marks - identifying marks stamped, transfer printed, or hand painted onto vessels to indicate its manufacturer. Not common until Whiteware.
Transfer Print - a technique developed in England about 1756 where a copper plate engraving is coated with a colored enamel glaze. The excess enamel is carefully removed from the plate, which is then printed onto a thin sheet of tissue paper. The transferred enamel designs are trimmed to fit specific vessel forms. The bisque-fired vessel is then lightly coated with soap which, when the tissue paper print is applied wet and lightly rubbed, causes the enamel to transfer to the ceramic body. The vessel would then be lightly fired to set the enamel, and subsequent decorative techniques and firings can follow.
Sader, John and Guy Green - developed the transfer printing technique and first demonstrated it on earthenware tiles in England in 1756.
Minton, Thomas - believed to have designed the famous Willow pattern which appeared first on Pearlware. The design was sent to China to be copied onto export porcelain and returned to England in 1792.
Willow Pattern: as applied in ceramics, a transfer-printed pearlware/whiteware consisting of two lovers on a bridge fleeing the father of the girl, a ship in the background, Chines Pagoda style houses, and two bird flying off into to sky. An English adaptation of a Chinese folk tale.
White Improved Earthenware - whiteware or ironstone, developed in the early 19th century. The first patent for this ware was issued in 1813 when it was called 'English Porcelain.'
White Porcellaneous - a totally vitrified ceramic similar to porcelain but whiter and with a more glossy, clear glaze. This ware was developed circa 1820.
Yellow ware - an improved earthenware turned yellow due to the impurities in the clay. The ceramic body was quite popular for kitchen and utilitarian wares of the 19th century. Same time period as whiteware.
Rockingham Ware or Bennington - (post 1788); chocolate brown glaze, yellow (brown) paste, esp. teapots.
Rhenish Stoneware - gray-bodied wares of German origin often decorated with cobalt blue and/or manganese purple frequently with appliqués decorations and later with more superficial incised decorations
Bellarmine bottles - refers to German brown stoneware bottles or jugs with a mask of a bearded man applied to their necks and sometimes medallions sprigged onto their bulbous sides. Early Bellarmine masks are quite lifelike in appearance; later masks become grotesque. Early faces, 1550-1625; later faces, 1620-1700.
Westerwald: cobalt blue and purple manganese decorated Rhenish stoneware. Extensively exported for the English trade and commonly occur as mugs with the ciphers of English monarchs.