Anthropology 607
Fall 2016
INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Donny L. Hamilton
OFFICE: Room 102B Conservation Research Lab, Anthropology Building
PHONE: 845-6355
E-mail: dlhamilton@tamu.edu

CLASS HOURS: Wednesday, 9:00-12:00 in Room 102, Anthropology Building
OFFICE HOURS: 10-11:50 A.M. Tuesday and Thursday or by appointment.

Major Reference Books

Stanley South, 1976, Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology
Stanley South, ed. 1977, Research Strategies in Historical Archaeology
Robert L. Schuyler, 1978, Historical Archaeology: A Guide to Substantive and
            Theoretical Contributions.
Barbara J. Little, 1992, Text-Aided Archaeology
David R. Brauner, Compiler, 2000, Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists. The Society for Historical Archaeology
Karlis Karklins, Ed., Studies in Material Culture Research, The Society for Historical Archaeology.
James Deetz, 1996, In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life, Anchor
Ivor Noel Hume, 1975, Historical Archaeology
Ivor Noel Hume, 1991, A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America
Teresita Majewski & David Haimster, Eds. International Handbook of Historical Archaeology, Springer
Society for Historical Archaeology 1967-2005, 2006-2016 - http://www.sha.org/publications/pubsexplorer/browsePubs.cfm
International Journal of Historical Archaeology
Post Medieval Archaeology

Subject to revisions and refinements, which will be posted on the on-line syllabus at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/607/607syl.htm

Use the on-line syllabus for the latest web links and reading assignments.

Course Objectives:
The objective of any archaeological excavation is to interpret the site and put it into a cultural context. The ways of interpreting a site are varied, but all require that the researcher be familiar with the history of the period, the documentary records, the material culture of the period, the archaeological data, and the excavation-recording procedures. Over the years I have found that students do not have experience analyzing a body of material culture and do not know how incorporate this information with the relevant historical documents. Archaeological research is sometimes done independently, but in most instances, it is done in conjunction with other researchers. During this course, we will be investigating pattern recognition in archaeology, and selective, major themes in historical archaeology. The emphasis will be on 17th-19th-century British archaeology in the Americas. In order to best demonstrate the on-going process of site interpretation, many of the topics discussed will revolve around the analysis of material culture.

The site of Port Royal, Jamaica , which was founded in 1655, sank in an earthquake in 1692, and continues as a small town today will be a basic reference.  All the students will select research topics that deal in some way with the analysis of some specific material culture from an archaeological site with provenience (provenance) data in order to do a distribution study. For many, the analysis will be on some body of data from Port Royal, since many of the artifacts are available for study and the databases with provenience and basic identifications are available. If a student has access to material from other sites, they can use that as well.  

The various processes by which historical archaeologist reconstruct and interpret excavated sites will be discussed in assigned seminar sessions, with all the students taking part. We will look closely at categories of archaeological features and material culture that are most commonly encountered, as well as the historic documents that are most commonly used in archaeological interpretations. Throughout the course, we will take into consideration the interplay between the written documents and the archaeological record and the value of each in the final analysis.

Required Papers: Personal Genealogy Search, Historic Port Royal Document Transcription - Will, Inventory, Grantor’s Record.  Artifact Description (Data Sheet.  Consult the recent journal articles, various material culture studies and probate record studies for ideas. Select your topics as soon as possible. Some of the papers may be served on the NAP Port Royal or other Internet site. Assigned seminar reports are usually delivered along with any handouts or aids via PowerPoint. 

Good examples of historic reports can be found on the Internet on the Plymouth , Massachusetts : Archival Project web site : http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home2.html   –text only version of above page (loads quicker) http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home3.html version Above now hosted at:  http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/

Selected References:
Studies in Material Culture Research, Karlis Karklins, editor, 2000.The Society for Historical Archaeology.
Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, David R.;
Brauner, compiler, A Reader for Historical Archaeology, 2000, The Society for Historical Archaeology.

The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony, by James Deetz and
 Patricia Scott Deetz, 2000, W.H. Freeman Co.
Historical Archaeology journals 1967-2000.The SHA journals are searchable on the web at:<http://www.sha.org/verity.cfm> .Each file is downloadable as a PDF file.
A Selected Bibliography of Historical Artifacts: c. 1760-1920, Mary Margaret Smith and Heinz Pyszczyk, Archaeological Survey of Alberta , Manuscript Series, No. 11. Alberta Culturalism, Historical Resources Division.
The Merchants of Port Royal, Claypole
Port Royal, Jamaica by Michael Pawson and David Buisseret, 2000, UWI Press
French Colonial Archaeology at Old Mobile: Selected Studies, Gregory A. Waselkov, editor, Historical Archaeology 36:1:2002.
The Archaeology of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century British Colonization in the Caribbean Unites States and Canada, Henry M. Miller, D.L. Hamilton, Nicholas Honerkamp, Steven R. Pendery, Peter E. Pope, and James A. Tuck, Editors, Guides to Historical Archaeological Literature.

Useful Internet Sites
Plymouth, Massachusetts: Archival Project
Glossary of Terms
Seminar Reports:
Plymouth Probate Records:
Selected Wills:
Vernacular House Forms:
Deetz, Chpt. 5, pp. 92-117, I Would Have the Howse Stronger in Timber
Can also be found on the Internet at:
Material Culture of Plymouth
Sexual Misconduct:

Jamestown Discovery
http://www.apva.org/re, Number 4.

Plymouth, Massachussetts Archival:  http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home2.html
or text only version of above page (loads quicker) http://www.people.virginia.edu/~jfd3a/home3.html

All the Plymouth related archaeology and archives now hosted at:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign:

Port Royal Project

Anthropology 607
Fall 2016


Week I, August 30, Introduction. Goals, Resources, Term Paper, Assignments
            South, chapter 1, Theoretical Foundations

Week 2, September 7, Pattern Recognition, Field Excavations.
Method & Theory in Historical Archaeology . Excavation grids, coordinates, and artifact numbering.  1554 Plate Fleet, La Belle, and  Port Royal used asexamples.

All read,                     
            Stanley South, 1976, Chapter 2, Pattern Recognition
            Stanley South, 1976, Chapter 8, Methodological Considerations, pp. 277-314
South, Chapter 3, The Brunswick Pattern of Refuse Disposal pp. 47-80
Chapter 4, The Carolina Artifact Pattern pp. 83-138

Week 3, September 14, Pattern Recognition
            Chapter 5, The Frontier Artifact Pattern, pp. 141-163
Chapter 6, Exploring Analytical Techniques -
            The Kitchen Artifact Pattern pp. 167-199

Week 4, September 21, Methodological Consideration,  Dating
            South, 1976, Revealing Culture Process through the Formula Concept , pp. 201-274.
                                    In Historical Archaeology: A guide to Substantive and Theoretical Contributions by Robert Schuyler: South, 1978 Chpt 17,  Evolution and Horizon as Revealed in Ceramic Analysis in Historical Archaeology
Harrington, Chapter 15, Dating Stem Fragments of Seventeeth and Eighteenth Century Clay Tobacco Pipe
            Binford, A New Method of Calculating Dates from Kaolin Pipe Stem Samples

            James Deetz, 1977, chpt. 3
Noel-Hume, 1976, all chpts. on Eng. ceramics
Barbara Price 1976

Week 5,  September 28, Documentary Evidence: Will, Inventories, Deeds, Land Plats, Diaries
Genealogy in Historical Archaeology
Required Genealogy Report 1: Seminar report and submitted paper.
By Week 4, go to Evans Library or on-line  and find one of your ancestors in the 1850-1930 US Census (the earlier the better) and print the page. Go to the Internet and download the pedigree chart at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/genealogy/pedchart.htm
and the family group record at: http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/313/genealogy/fgr.htm
The family group record is provided to add additional information on the entire family of each generation. A separate family group record is used for each generation.
Fill out the charts as well as you can, starting with yourself. Then go to one of the following web sites and conduct a search to see if you can find any connections to any of the names in your family. 

Basic Genealogy Resources
Consult Ancestry.com - http://www.ancestry.com/search/main.htm or
Genealogy.com - http://www.genealogy.com/index_n.html
 You can go on line and get a free 15 or 30 day membership.  JUST BE SURE TO CANCEL AFTER 30 DAYS IF WILL INCUR A CHARGE.
FamilySearch.com - Church of Latter Day Saints - http://www.familysearch.org/
HeritageQuest.com – accessible through Evans Library. Access to US censuses and lots of family genealogy reports and publications.
Family Tree Maker - http://www.familytreemaker.com – to record your data.

Follow out any leads you find and print out each lead. You are more likely to find a connection the further back in your genealogy you can go, such as your great grandparents or great, great grandparents. Using the data on your chart and the US Census, find a minimum of three more records such as a marriage record, death record, probate records, deed record on the same relative.

Try to find one of your ancestors in a US Census, 1850 - 1940. If you cannot find any of your own ancestors, then use someone that is somehow related -- such as someone with the same surname in the same locality as your relatives. If necessary, use a historic figure as a last resort. Write a report on your search and findings. Point out any revelations or insights the research contributed to your understanding of your family and the relevance of genealogy to historic research.

If you find any hits on your searches on the Internet, you can arrange with me to search the files of ancestry.com for material that is available in their databases which require membership.   All the images of the US Censuses are available as well as many state and county records Also as a TAMU student you have access to Heritage Quest which has all the censuses and many family histories and historic documents as well. You can also get a 30 day free membership on Genealogy.com which will give you access to all the US Censuses and numerous other records. 

The1940 US Census is the latest to be released. If your family is from Texas or the South, the TAMU Evans Library has all the census records for Texas and many of the southern states. Also, the Carnegie Library in Bryan has many of the census records. This exercise is intended to expose you to the basic documents used in genealogical research that is conducted when one excavates a historic site. This written Genealogy Exercise is due on September 30, 2016.

Week 6, October 5, Documentary Evidence: Will, Inventories, Deeds, Land Plats, Diaries, Period accounts,

Film: Genealogy by Genetics
Archaeological Examples -  Port Royal, Beard House, & Hamilton family tree
All Read: Beaudry 1988: Chpts 1, 4, & 27
Benes, pp. 5-16
Barbara Little, Text-Aided Archaeology pp. 1-6
Simon Benning, Pewterer of Port Royal, Hamilton in Barbara Little, Text-Aided Archaeology, pp. 39-53
These readings in Beaudry, Benes, and Little (Week are intended to help you with the assigned transcription that will be presented on February 13, 2014. A folder of transcription aids is kept near the reader. Present a seminar report and turn in your transcription paper.

Required Transcription - Report 2: This week each student will present his/her report on the transcription of at least three 17th-century documents dealing with Port Royal or your approved transcripton topic. The extant wills, inventories, and patent records from the Jamaica Archives and Public Record Office are available on microfilm. Many of the Port Royal will/inventory transcriptions are served on the NAP Internet. Possible transcriptions include a matched will and inventory from the same person or family. If all the documents are not for the same person, then they must be related (not necessarily by blood) in some way. (Ex. husband and wife, father and son, godfather, business partner, executor of will, person of same trade, etc.) Alternatively, the documents can deal with material culture, status indicators, estate distribution. A list will be posted of all the wills and inventories that have been transcribed, so try to fine documents that have not been transcribed. However, you may make use of the transcribed documents. Most of the inventories from Port Royal in Vol. 3 have been transcribed, but there are some from elsewhere in Jamaica . Check the list before you start transcribing. If your interests are in New England , we have the Suffolk County, Massachusetts, Wills and Inventories that can be used for comparative studies. Transcription paper is due October 7, 2016.

Of course, the wills, inventories, plats, grantors records and other documents will be transcribed, but in addition, you will compare the data presented in each, analyzing how this data might contribute to your interpretations if you were excavating the site where the individual that the documents were about lived there. There are a few inventories that consist of just a few sentences; please select one that has an itemized list. You must include in the transcription paper a copy of the transcribed document and the complete reference for the transcribed documents (Inventory, Vol. #, folio #, Public Records Office; Will, Vol. #, folio #, Jamaica Archives). Points will be deducted if each transcribed document is not properly referenced. A copy of the transcription paper on computer disk has to be turned in. I will be explaining how to use the Port Royal indices and the microfilm that we have. Transcription aids and a list of terms will be made available. The microfilm/fiche reading facilities are maintained Room 103 on the first floor of the Anthropology Building. As much as might be possible use the printed copies of the file or use the PDF file of the documents. Each student is responsible for keeping the microfiche sleeves organized and take care that none of the individual frames fall out. Under no circumstances are the microfiche sleeves to be taken home.

Additional Internet aids useful for conducting genealogical research
Ancestry.com - http://www.ancestry.com/search/main.htm
FamilySearch.com - Church of Latter Day Saints - http://www.familysearch.org/
Family Tree Maker - http://www.familytreemaker.com/

An 19-th/20th-century example of the genealogical research trail of one family
"Following the Written Record Trail" and Genealogical Research - an example - The Ross-Hamilton Records:

Studies in Material Culture Research, Karlis Karklins, editor, The Society for Historical Archaeology.
Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, David R.;
Brauner, compiler, A Reader for Historical Archaeology, The Society for Historical Archaeology
Datasheets 1-24, Finds Research Group 700-1700

Required Report 3.   Using the three sources above, each student is to select a single artifact or a small category of similar artifacts and prepare a written description and analysis of the artifact (s), documenting it thoroughly, with photographs, drawings,, and interpretative report.  Paper due November 18-22, 2016.

17th-Century Ceramics found on English sites.
Early to Mid-19th-Century English Ceramics -- the onslaught of English manufactured ceramics.
What do archaeologists do with the ceramics?

Thompson et. al, 1984
Beaudry, Chpts. 2, 5, 6, & 15
Deetz in Quimby, 1973, pp. 105-139
Brown in Quimby, 1973, pp. 41-74
Stone et. al. in Quimby, 1973, pp. 105-139
Noel-Hume in Quimby, 1973, pp. 217-254
Pittman in Reinhart, 1993, pp. 357-369
Pogue in Reinhart, 1993, pp. 371-392
Port Royal Ceramic typology
Donachie, Madeleine, 2001  Household Ceramics at Port Royal, Jamaica, 1655-1692: The Building 4/5 Assemblage.  Doctoral Dissertation, Department of
         Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Franklin, Marianne, 1992  Wrought-Iron Hand Tools in Port Royal, Jamaica: A Study Based Upon a Collection of the Tools Recovered from Archaeological Excavations and Listed in the Probate Records of Colonial Port Royal, c. 1692.   Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Fox, Georgia Lynn, 1998  The Study of the Kaolin Clay Tobacco Pipe Collection from the Seventeenth-Century Archaeological Site of Port Royal, Jamaica.  Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
Ceramic Analyses, Dating and Computer Applications
South 1976, chpt. 7. How applicable to 17th century.
South in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 17, pp. 68-82
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
Post-Medieval Pottery 1650-1800 by Jo Draper
Tin-glazed earthenware:
Chamber Pots:

Week 8, October 19, Smoking Pipes and other Material Culture
Port Royal
Noel-Hume, 1976, pp. 296-312
Harrington in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 15
Binford in Schuyler, 1978, chpt. 16
Port Royal Papers,
Fox Dissertation - Kaolin Pipes, BAR series
Heidtke, Kenan, thesis -1992  Jamaican Red Clay Pipes.  Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station
Barclay Series on Pipes
Smith -- Dissertation on Weights & Measures, BAR series
Gotelipe-Miller, Shirley, 1990  Pewter and Pewterers from Port Royal, Jamaica: Flatware before 1692.  Master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University
Martin, 1989, pp. 1-26 (SHA 1989, Vol. 23, No. 2
Ward, Ed 1700
Guild Crafts: Pewterer, Braziers, Cobblers, Tanners, Goldsmiths, Doctors, and other craftsmen/specialists in the colonies.
Museum of London Book on Pewter

Week 9, October 26, Patterning - Computers in Archaeology: AutoCAD, Surfer, PhotoModeler, databases
Required Artifact Distribution Report 4 Each student will be take on an artifact distribution analysis from the PR data (or your own site it if has the data)and present it in a Surfer contour map superimposed on a Port Royal excavation plan. Alternatively the same can be done for another site as long as there is provenience data, a suitable map of the site where Easting, Northing (X, Y, Z), coordinates can be plotted.

Carlson, Ceramic dating article
Computers in Historical Archaeology
d-Base, Field Mapping, Computer Assisted Drafting (CAD), Surfer
frame capture, Scanning, etc.

Week 10, November 2, Ethnic and Subsistence Studies in Historical Archaeology
Reading assignments to be given later.
Ethnic Archaeology
John Solomon Otto in Schuyler, 1980, chpt. 1
John Solomon Otto in South, 1977, pp. 91-118, Artifact and Status Differences –A Comparison of Ceramics from Planter, Overseer, and Slave Sites on an Antebellum Plantation

Read Chapter 10, The Archaeology of Groups, in Historical Archaeology by Orser and Fagan.
Sugar, Cotton, and Slaves
Drax Hall, Armstrong
New Seville, Armstrong
Newton Plantation, Handler
Slaves at Port Royal and Jamaica
American Archaeology, Vol. 6, #1, page 40-51.
Schuyler, 1980
Singleton, chpts., 5, 8, 11
Individual reading assignments for seminar presentation
African-American Diaspora. http://www.diaspora.illinois.edu/bookmark3.htm


WEEK 11, November 9, New Trends in Historical Archaeology –Gender, Consumerism, wealth, landscape, etc.
Topics to be discussed taken from articles published in the last two years of Historical Archaeology, International Journal of Historical Archaeology, and Post-Medieval Archaeology.

WEEK 12, November 16, New Trends in Historical Archaeology. Gender Studies, The Archaeology of Gender by Diana diZerega Wall
The Archaeology of Wealth, Consumer Behavior in English America, James G. Gibb
Trussel, Timothy D.2004  Artifacts of Ambition: How the 17th-century Middle Class at Port Royal, Jamaica, Foreshadowed the Consumer Revolution.
         Master's Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station.
The Materiality of Individuality, Carolyn L. White (ed.)

Week 13,  November 23, Reading Day, No Classes
            November 24-25 – Thanksgiving Holidays

WEEK 14, November 30,  Term paper Seminar Reports.
Student presentation of term  papers prepared as a PowerPoint.  Input of all students on all papers is expected.

WEEK 15, December 7,  Paper Report, Concluding Remarks, Historic Archaeology in the future.  

Student presentation of paper. Input of all students on all papers is expected
 Report 4, Distribution paper is due November 16, 2016.

NOTE: No research paper dealing with any the archaeological data from Port Royal can be published without written permission of Dr. Hamilton. If you want to publish something independently on Port Royal , be sure and work out the details with Dr. Hamilton before submitting the article.

All papers are due by December 9, 2016, if not already submitted.
Each student's grade will be based on attendance, class participation, the presentation of assigned seminar reports, genealogy report, historic documents transcription, an artifact study paper, and a term paper on an approved topic. A paper dealing with some aspect of Port Royal or other TAMU project is encouraged. Anything to do with a MS or PhD topic would be ideal.

Report 1 - Personal Genealogy Search - 15%                       September 30, 2016.
Report 2 - Transcription paper – 15%                                               October7, 2016.
Report 3 - Artifact Study, with XRF data  report 30%          November 18-22, 2016
Report 4 - Patterning-distribution  Term Paper- 30%                       December 9, 2016.

Assigned seminar reports and class participation - 10%.                                                    

Excessive absences, e.g. more than 2 classes - which in this class is equivalent to 6 classes should be avoided. 
The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," I mean all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy the handouts, unless I expressly grant permission.

As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., which belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated.

If you have any questions regarding plagiarism, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty."

The Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA )
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the office of Support Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B-116 of Cain Hall. The phone number is 845-1637.
For many years Aggies have followed a Code of Honor, which is stated in this very simple verse:
"An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do."
The Aggie Code of Honor is an effort to unify the aims of all Texas A&M men and women toward a high code of ethics and personal dignity. For most, living under this code will be no problem, as it asks nothing of a person that is beyond reason. It only calls for honesty and integrity, characteristics that Aggies have always exemplified.
The Aggie Code of Honor functions as a symbol to all Aggies, promoting understanding and loyalty to truth and confidence in each other.
Attendance Policy and Grading Scale Examples
Attendance Policy:
“The University views class attendance as the responsibility of an individual student. Attendance is essential to complete the course successfully. University rules related to excused and unexcused absences are located on-line at --  http://student-rules.tamu.edu/rule07 ."

Example Grading Scales:
Standard Letter Grading Scale:
A= 90-100     B = 80-89      C = 70-79       D = 60-69       F = <60


For week 3, Each person is to find a site report and look in detail at how they set Excavation grids, coordinates, and artifact numbering. the grid up, how provenience of the recovered artifacts was maintained in time and space -- horizontally and vertically, and what was the procedure for numbering artifacts. Each student will present the field excavation and documentation procedures for a site that they think are good and worthy of emulating.
The procedures utilized at Port Royal, Jamaica will be presented.



What you ultimately do or can do depends on what you do in the field.
Chapter 8, Archaeological Fieldwork: Field and Laboratory in Historical Archaeology by Orser & Fagan.
Introduction to Port Royal, Excavations, History, Material culture, PowerPoint presentation by Hamilton

We will be looking at the site, the excavation techniques, catalogue system, architecture, material culture, subsistence, etc. Used as a starting point for our study of 17th-century English archaeology and architectural features.